Adapted and Updated from: "Anti-Semitism", Keter Publishing House, Jerusalem, 1974)
3rd cent. B.C.E.
Manetho, Greco-Egyptian historian, says Jews were expelled from Egypt as lepers.
Anti-Jewish riots in Alexandria (Egypt): many Jews killed, and all the Jews were confined to one quarter of the city.
Emperor Tiberius expels the Jews from Rome and Italy.
Massacre of the Jews of Alexandria (Egypt) in which 50,000 were killed.
1st cent. C.E.
Apion of Alexandria surpasses other Hellenistic anti-Semites in the crudeness of his fabrications.
Tertullian, Church Father, writes his anti-Jewish polemic in LatinAdversus Judaeos.
After the ecumenical council, Nicaea, the Christian Church formualtes its policy toward the Jews: the Jews must continue to exist for the sake of Christianity in seclusion and humiliation.
John Chrysostom, Church Father in the East, violently anti-Jewish, delivers eight sermons in Antioch.
Theodosius II, Roman emperor of the East, legalizes the civil inferiority of the Jews.
Persecutions of the Jews in Babylonia.
Jews persecuted in Babylonia by Firuz, the exilarch, and many Jews killed and their children given to Mazdeans.
Emperor Justinian I issues his novellae to Corpus Juris Civilisexpressing his anti-Jewish policy.
Visigothic king Sisebut of Spain inaugurates a policy of forcible conversion of all Jews in the kingdom.
Jewish tribes of Hejaz (Arabia) destroyed by Muhammad.
Dagobert I expels Jews from Frankish kingdom.
Heraclius, Byzantine emperor, decrees forced baptism of all Jews in the Byzantine empire.
Official Church doctrine on conversion of Jews in Spain formulated.
Visigothic king Chintila compels the sixth council of Toledo to adopt resolution proclaiming that only Catholics may reside in the kingdom Spain.
All Jews under Visigothic rule in Spain declared slaves, their possessions confiscated and the Jewish religion outlawed.
Caliph Omar 11 introduces series of discriminatory regulations against the dhimmi, the protected Christians and Jews, among them the wearing of a special garb.
Fatimid caliph Al-Hãkim in Erez Israel issues severe restrictions against Jews.
Emperor Henry 11 of Germany expels Jews from Mainz, the beginning of persecutions against Jews in Germany.
First Crusade. Crusaders massacre the Jews of the Rhineland (1096).
Blood libel at Norwich (England); first record, blood libel.
Anti-Jewish riots in Rhineland by the Crusaders of the second Crusade.
Beginning of the brutal persecutors of the of North Africa under the Almohads, lasted until 1212.
King Philip Augustus of France decrees the expulsion of the Jews from his kingdom and the confiscation of their real estate.
Anti-Jewish riots in England: massacre at York,and other cities.
Fourth Lateran Council introduces the Jewish Badge.
Blood libel at Fulda, Germany.
Severe anti-Jewish persecutions in western France.
Disputation of Paris which led to the burning of the Talmud.
Burning of the Talmud at Paris.
Blood libel at Lincoln, England.
Disputation of Barcelona.
Expulsion of the Jews from England, the first of the great general expulsions of the Middle Ages.
Massacre of thousands of Jews in 146 localities in southern and central Germany led by the German knight Rindfleisch.
Expulsion of Jews from France.
Pastoureaux ("Shepherds"), participants of the second Crusade in France against the Muslims in Spain, attack the Jews of 120 localities in southwest France.
Persecutions against Jews in central France in consequence of a false charge of their supposed collusion with the lepers.
Expulsion from the kingdom of France.
Persecutions against Jews in Franconia and Alsace led by lawless German bands, the Armleder.
Black Death Massacres which spread throughout Spain, France, Germany and Austria, as a result of accusations that the Jews had caused the death of Christians by poisoning the wells and other water sources.
Massacre of the Prague (Bohemia) community.
Wave of massacres and conversions in Spain and Balearic Islands.
Expulsion from the kingdom of France.
Blood libel in Poznan.
Oppressive legislation against Jews in Spain as an outcome of the preaching of the Dominican friar Vicente Ferrer.
Disputation of Tortosa (Spain). The most important and longest of the Christian-Jewish disputations the consequence of which was mass conversions and intensified persecutions.
Persecutions of Jews in Vienna and its environs, confiscation of their possessions, and conversion of Jewish children, 270 Jews burnt at stake, known as the Wiener Gesera (Vienna Edict). Expulsion of Jews from Austria.
Massacre and conversion of the Jews of Majorca.
Establishment of mellahs (ghettos) in Morocco.
John of Capistrano, Italian Franciscan friar, incites persecutions and expulsions of Jews from cities in Germany.
Marranos of Valladolid and Cordoba, in Spain massacred.
Marranos of Segovia, Spain, massacred.
Inquisition established in Spain.
Torquemada appointed inquisitor general of Spanish Inquisition. Expulsion of Jews from Warsaw.
Blood libel in La Guardia, town in Spain, where the alleged victim became revered as a saint.
Expulsion from Spain.
Expulsion from Sicily.
Expulsion from Lithuania.
Expulsion from Portugal: mass forced conversion.
Massacre of Marranos in Lisbon.
Expulsion of Jews from Brandenburg (Germany).
Venice initiates the ghetto, the first in Christian Europe.
Inquisition established in Portugal.
Jews of Tunisia expelled and massacred.
Expulsion from the kingdom of Naples. Expulsion from Prague and crown cities.
Martin Luther, German religious reformer, attacks the Jews with extreme virulence.
Expulsion from Genoa (Italy).
Expulsion from Bavaria.
Burning of the Talmud in Rome.
Censorship of Hebrew books introduced in Italy.
Burning of Marranos at Ancona, Italy.
Expulsion from the republic of Genoa (Italy).
Expulsion from the Papal States (Italy).
Vincent Fettmilch, anti-Jewish guild leader in Frankfort, Germany, attacks with his followers the Jews of the town and forces them to leave the City.
Ghetto established at Ferrara (Italy).
Massacres initiated by Bogdan Chmielnicki, leader of the Cossacks, and peasant uprising against Polish rule in the Ukraine, in which 100,000 Jews were killed and 300 communities destroyed.
Jews of Tunisia confined to special quarters (Hãra).
Massacres of Jews during the wars of Poland against Sweden and Russia.
Expulsion from Vienna. Blood libel at Metz (France).
Johann Andreas Eisenmenger writes his Entdecktes Judenthum("Judaism Unmasked"), a work denouncing Judaism and whlch had a formative influence on modern anti-Semitic polemics.
Blood libel in Sandomierz (Poland) after which the Jews of the'town were expelled.
Pope Pius VI issues a severe "Edict concerning the Jews", in which he renews all former restrictions against them.
Haidamacks, paramilitary bands in Polish Ukraine, attack Jews.
Expulsion from Prague.
Haidamacks massacre the Jews of Uman (Poland) together with the Jews from other places who had sought refuge there.
Haidamacks massacre the Jews of Uman (Poland): 20,000 Jews and Poles killed.
Destruction of most of the Jewish communities of Morocco.
Pale of Settlement -twenty-five provinces of Czarist Russia established, where Jews permitted permanent residence: Jews forbidden to settle elsewhere in Russia.
Massacre of Jews in Algeria.
A series of anti-Jewish riots in Germany that spread to several neighboring countries (Denmark, Poland, Latvia and Bohemia) known as Hep! Hep! Riots, from the derogatory rallying cry against the Jews in Germany.
Compulsory military service for the Jews of Russia: Jewish minors under 18 years of age, known as "Cantonists," placed in preparatory military training establishments.
Oppressive constitution for the Jews in Russia issued by Czar Nicholas 1.
Blood libel in Damascus (The Damascus Affair).
Blood libel in Saratov (Russia), bringing a renewal of the blood libel throughout Russia.
Abduction of a 7-year-old Jewish child, Edgard Mortara, in Bologna by Catholic conversionists (Mortara Case), an episode which aroused univeral indignation in liberal circles.
Adolf Stoecker, German anti-Semitic preacher and politician, founds the Social Workers' Party, which marks the beginning of the political anti-Semitic movement in Germany.
Heinrich von Treitschke, German historian and politician, justifies the anti-Semitic campaigns in Germany, bringing anti-Semitism into learned circles.
Wilhelm Marr, German agitator, coins the term anti-Semitism.
Pogroms sweep southern Russia, beginning of mass Jewish emigration.
Blood libel in Tiszaeszlar, Hungary, which aroused public opinion throughout Europe.
First International Anti-Jewish Congress convened at Dreseden, Germany.
A series of "temporary laws" confirmed by Czar Alexander III of Russia in May, 1882 ("May Laws"), which adopted a systematic policy of discrimination, with the object of removing the Jews from their economic and public positions.
Expulsion of about 10,000 Russian Jews, refugees of 1881-1884 pogroms, from Germany.
Blood libel in Xanten, Germany.
Expulsion from Moscow, Russia.
Karl Lueger establishes in Vienna the anti-Semitic Christian Social Party and becomes mayor in 1897.
Alfred Dreyfus trial in Paris.
Alexander C. Cuza organizes the Alliance Anti-sémitique Universelle in Bucharest, Rumania.
Houston Stewart Chamberlain, racist and anti-Semitic author, publishes his Die Grundlagen des 19 Jahrhunderts which became a basis of National-Socialist ideology.
Blood libel in Bohemia (the Hilsner case).
Pogrom at Kishinev, Russia.
Pogroms n the Ukraine and Bessarabia, perpetuated in 64 towns (most serious in Odessa with over 300 dead and thousands wounded).
First Russian public edition of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion appears.
Pogroms In Bialystok and Siedlce, Russia.
Polish boycott against Jews.
Menahem Mendel Beilis, blood libel trial at Kiev.
Pogroms in Fez (Morocco).
Ku Klux Klan, rascist organization in the U.S., refounded.
Pogroms in the Ukraine and Poland. 1) Pogroms by retreating Red Army from the Ukraine (spring, 1918), before the German army. 2) Pogroms by the retreating Ukraine army under the command of Simon Petlyura, resulting in the deaths of over 8,000Jews. 3)Pogroms by the counter revolutionary "White Army" under the command of General A.I. Denikin (fall, 1919) in which about 1,500 Jews were killed. 4) Pogroms by the "White Army" in Siberia and Mongolia (1919). 5) Pogroms by anti-Soviet bands in the Ukraine (1920-21), in which thousands of Jews were killed.
Abolishment of community organization and non-Communist Jewish institutions in Soviet Russia.
Pogroms in Hungary: c. 3,000 Jews killed.
Adolf Hitler becomes Fuehrer, of the National-Sozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP), later known as National Socialist.
Henry Ford I begins a series of anti-Semitic articles based on theProtocols of the Elders of Zion, in his Dearbon Independent.
Economic restrictions on Jews in Poland.
Adolf Hitier's Mein Kampf appears.
Adolf Hitler appointed chancellor of Germany. Anti-Jewish economic boycott: first concentration camps (Dachau, Oranienburg, Esterwegen and Sachsenburg).
Nuremberg Laws introduced.
Anti-Semitic legislation in Rumania.
Discrimination against Jews in Polish universities.
After Anschluss, pogroms in Vienna, anti-Jewish legislation introduced: deportations to camps in Austria and Germany.
Charles E. Coughlin, Roman Catholic priest, starts anti-Semitic weekly radio broadcasts in U.S.
Kristallnacht, Nazi anti-Jewish outrage in Germany and Austria (Nov. 9-10, 1938): Jewish businesses attacked, synagogues burnt, Jews sent to concentration camps.
Racial legislation introduced in Italy (Nov. 17, 1938). Anti Jewish economic legislation in Hungary.
Anti-Jewish laws introduced in the Protectorate (Czechoslovakia).
Outbreak of World War 11 (Sept. 1, 1939), Poland overrun by German army: pogroms in Poland; beginning of the Holocaust.
Nazi Germtny introduces gassing.
Formation of ghettos in Poland: mass shootings of Jews: Auschwitz camp, later an extermination camp, established; Western European Jews under Nazis. Belzec extermination camp established.
Algerian administration applies social laws of Vichy.
Germany invades Russia and the Baltic states. Majdanek extermination camp established. Chelmno and Treblinka extermination camps established. Anti-Jewish laws in Slovakia. Pogroms in Jassy, Rumania. Pogroms and massacres by theEinsatzgruppen and native population in Baltic states and the part of Russia occupied by Germany. Expulsions of Jews from the German Reich to Poland. Beginning of deportation and murder of Jews in France.
Severe riots against Jews in Iraq in consequence of Rashid Ali al-Jilani's coup d'état. Nazi Germany introduces gassing in extermination camps.
Conference in Wannsee, Berlin, to carry out the "Final Solution" (Jan. 20, 1942). Beginning of mass transports of Jews of Belgium and Holland to Auschwitz. Massacres 'In occupied Russia continue. Death camps of Auschwitz, Majdanek and Treblinka begin to function at full capacity: transports from ghettos to death camps. Sobibor extermination camp established.
Germany declared Judenrein. Transports of Jews from all over Europe to death camps. Final liquidation of the Warsaw ghetto (May 16, 1943). Annihilation of most of the ghettos. Transport of Italian Jews to death camps.
Extermination of Hungarian Jewry.
Germany surrenders (May 8, 1945) estimated Jewish victims in the Holocaust 5,820,960.
Pogroms at Kielce, Poland, 42 Jews murdered and many wounded (July 4, 1946).
Jewish culture in U.S.S.R. suppressed and Jewish intellectuals shot.
Pogroms in Libya.
Prague Trials (Slánský): Murder of Yiddish intellectuals in Russia and many Jews disappear or sent to work camps.
Accusation of "Doctors' plot" in the U.S.S.R., cancelled with Stalin's death.
Jews of Egypt expelled.
Arabic version of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion published in Egypt.
Fresh wave of anti-Semitism in Poland; emigration of most of the remaining Jews of Poland.
Jews executed in Iraq.
Leningrad, and other trials of Soviet Jews, who agitate for right to emigrate.
Spread of Neo-Nazi publications in US and other parts of the world denying the Holocaust
Eleven Israeli athletes massacred at the Munich Olympic Games, which continue after a brief memorial ceremony.
UN General Assembly passes a resolution equating Zionism with racism.
Steven Cokely, an adviser to the mayor of Chicago and his link to Nation of Islam leader Louis Farrakhan, accuses Jewish doctors of purposely infecting blacks with the AIDS virus in order to further a plan for world domination.
Iraq fires scud missiles at Israel in reaction to allied attacks during first Gulf War
Terror attacks in Israel increase.
Shooting attack on Jewish Community Center in Los Angeles, CA
Thirteen Iranian Jews tried as Israeli spies.
Outbreak of anti-Israel violence at second ("Al-Aqsa") intifada.
The UN World Conference Against Racism in Durban becomes a platform for anti-Israel and anti-Semitic demonstrations by thousands.
Coordinated "9/11" attacks against United States targets by Islamic terrorists blamed on Jewish conspiracy.
Increase in frequency of attacks on Jews and Jewish sites in Europe
Attacks on Jewish targets in Europe, including bombing of a Jewish school in Paris and simultaneous bombings of two synagogues in Istanbul during prayer services.
University of Berlin report showing rise of anti-Semitism in Europe released after being suppressed by EU.