Thursday, March 19, 2015

Pogroms against the Jews - Timeline

This is a list of events for which one of the commonly accepted names includes the word "pogrom".
DatePogrom NameAlternative Name(s)DeathsDescription
38Alexandrian pogrom (name disputed)[a]Alexandrian riotsAulus Avilius Flaccus, the Egyptian prefect of Alexandria appointed by Tiberius in 32 CE, may have encouraged the outbreak of violence; Philo wrote that Flaccus was later arrested and eventually executed for his part in this event. Scholarly research around the subject has been divided on certain points, including whether the Alexandrian Jews fought to keep their citizenship or to acquire it, whether they evaded the payment of the poll-tax or prevented any attempts to impose it on them, and whether they were safeguarding their identity against the Greeks or against the Egyptians.
1066Granada pogrom1066 Granada massacre4,000 JewsA mob stormed the royal palace in Granada, which was at that time in Muslim-ruled al-Andalus, assassinated the Jewish vizier Joseph ibn Naghrela and massacred many of the Jewish population of the city.
10961096 pogromsRhineland massacres2,000 JewsPeasant crusaders from France and Germany attacked Jewish communities in the three towns of Speyer, Worms and Mainz. They were the first Christian pogroms to be officially recorded.
1113Kiev pogrom (name disputed)[b]Kiev revoltRebellion sparked by the death of the Grand Prince of Kiev, in which Jews connected to the prince's economic affairs were among the victims
1506Lisbon pogromLisbon Massacre500 New ChristiansAfter an episode of famine and bad harvests, a pogrom happened in Lisbon, Portugal,[58] in which more than 500 "New Christian" (forcibly converted Jews) people were slaughtered and/or burnt by an angry Christian mob, in the first night of what became known as the "Lisbon Massacre". The killing occurred from 19 to 21 April, almost eliminating the entire Jewish or Jewish-descendant community residing in that city. Even the Portuguese military and the king himself had difficulty stopping it. The event is today remembered with a monument in S. Domingos' church.
1563Polotskpogrom (name disputed)[c]Polotsk drowningsFollowing the fall of Polotsk to the army of Ivan IV, all those who refused to convert to Orthodox Christianity were ordered drowned in the river Dvina
1821–1871First Odessa pogromsThe Greeks of Odessa attacked the local Jewish community, in what began as economic disputes
1881–1884First Russian Tsarist pogroms2 JewsA large-scale wave of anti-Jewish riots swept through south-western Imperial Russia (present-day Ukraine and Poland) from 1881 to 1884 (in that period over 200 anti-Jewish events occurred in the Russian Empire, notably the KievWarsaw and Odessa pogroms)
1881Warsaw pogrom2 Jews (Included above)Three days of rioting against Jews, Jewish stores, businesses, and residences in the streets adjoining the Holy Cross Church.
1902Częstochowa pogrom14 JewsA mob attacked the Jewish shops, killing fourteen Jews and one gendarme. The Russian military brought to restore order were stoned by mob.
1903–1906SecondRussian Tsarist pogroms2,000+ JewsA much bloodier wave of pogroms broke out from 1903 to 1906, leaving an estimated 2,000 Jews dead and many more wounded, as many Jewish residents took arms to defend their families and property from the attackers. The 1905 pogrom against the Jewish population in Odessa was the most serious pogrom of the period, with reports of up to 2,500 Jewish people killed.
1903First Kishinev pogrom47 Jews (Included above)Three days of anti-Jewish rioting sparked by anti-semitic articles in local newspapers
1904Limerick pogrom (name disputed)[d]Limerick BoycottNoneAn economic boycott waged against the small Jewish community in Limerick, Ireland, for over two years
1905SecondKishinev pogrom19 Jews (Included above)Two days of anti-Jewish rioting beginning as political protests against the Tsar
1905Kiev Pogrom (1905)100 Jews (Included above)Following a city hall meeting, a mob was drawn into the streets, proclaiming that "all Russia's troubles stemmed from the machinations of the Jews and socialists."
1906Siedlce pogrom26 Jews (Included above)An attack organized by the Russian secret police (Okhrana). Anti-semitic pamphlets had been distributed for over a week and before any unrest begun, a curfew was declared.
1909Adana pogromAdana massacre30,000 ArmeniansA massacre of Armenians in the city of Adana amidst the Countercoup (1909) resulted in a series of anti-Armenian pogroms throughout the district.
1911Tredegar pogrom (name disputed)
South Wales[e]
Tredegar riotsNoneJewish shops were ransacked and the army had to be brought in
1914Anti-Serb pogrom in SarajevoSarajevo frenzy of hate2 SerbsOccurred shortly after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand.[62]
1918Lwów pogrom(name disputed)[f]Lemberg massacre52–150 Jews, 270 UkrainiansDuring the Polish-Ukrainian War over three days of unrest in the city, an estimated 52–150 Jewish residents were killed and hundreds injured, with widespread looting carried out by Polish soldiers, as well as lawless civilians, and local criminals. Two hundred and seventy more Ukrainians were killed during this time as well. The Poles did not stop the pogrom until two days after it began. The independent investigations by the British and American missions in Poland stated that there were no clear conclusions and that foreign press reports were exaggerated.
1919Kiev Pogroms (1919)60+A series of Jewish pogroms in various places around Kiev carried out by White Volunteer Army troops
1919Pinsk pogrom (name disputed)[g]Pinsk massacre36 JewsMass execution of thirty-five Jewish residents of Pinsk in April 1919 by the Polish Army, during the opening stages of the Polish-Soviet War
1919–20Vilna pogrom (name disputed)[h]Vilna offensive65+ Jews and non-JewsAs Polish troops entered the city, dozens of people connected with the Lit-Bel were arrested, and some were executed
1929Hebron pogrom (name disputed)[i]Hebron massacre67 JewsDuring the 1929 Palestine riots, sixty-seven Jews were killed as the violence spread to Hebron, then part of Mandatory Palestine, by Arabs incited to violence by rumors that Jews were massacring Arabs in Jerusalem and seizing control of Muslim holy places.
1936Przytyk pogrom(name disputed)[j]Przytyk riot2 Jews and 1 PolishSome of the Jewish residents gathered in the town square in anticipation of the attack by the peasants, but nothing happened on that day. Two days later, however, on a market day, as Jewish historians Martin Gilbert and David Vital claim, peasants attacked their Jewish neighbors.
1938November pogromKristallnacht91 JewsCoordinated attacks against Jews throughout Nazi Germany and parts of Austria, carried out by SA paramilitary forces and non-Jewish civilians. Accounts from the foreign journalists working in Germany sent shock waves around the world.
1940Dorohoi pogrom53 JewsRomanian military units carried out a pogrom against the local Jews, during which, according to an official Romanian report, 53 Jews were murdered, and dozens injured
1941Iași pogrom13,266 JewsOne of the most violent pogroms in Jewish history, launched by governmental forces in the Romanian city of Iaşi (Jassy) against its Jewish population
1941Antwerp Pogrom0One of the few pogroms of Belgian history. Flemish collaborators attacked and burned synagogues and attacked a rabbi in the city of Antwerp
1941Bucharest pogromLegionnaires' rebellion125 Jews and 30 soldiersAs the privileges of the paramilitary organisation Iron Guard were being cut off by Conducător Ion Antonescu, members of the Iron Guard, also known as the Legionnaires, revolted. During the rebellion and pogrom, the Iron Guard killed 125 Jews and 30 soldiers died in the confrontation with the rebels.
1941Tykocin pogrom1,400–1,700 JewsMass murder of Jewish residents of Tykocin in occupied Poland during World War II, soon after Nazi German attack on the Soviet Union.
1941Jedwabne pogrom340 JewsThe local rabbi was forced to lead a procession of about 40 people to a pre-emptied barn, killed and buried along with fragments of a destroyed monument of Lenin. A further 250-300 Jews were led to the same barn later that day, locked inside and burned alive using kerosene
1941Pogrom in Krnjeuša240 CroatsAn organized attack in the territory of the Catholic parish of Krnjeuša in northwestern Bosnia and Herzegovina, carried out by Serb Chetniks against the local Catholic Croatpopulation
1941Lviv pogroms4,000–8,000 civilian prisoners and 5,000 JewsMassacres of civilian prisoners by Soviet forces prior to evacuation, followed by massacre of Jews by German and other forces. Subject of a protracted controversy
1946Kunmadaras pogrom2 JewsA frenzy instigated by the crowd's libelous belief that some Jewish people had made sausage out of Christian children
1946Miskolc pogrom2 JewsRiots started as demonstrations against economic hardships and later became anti-Semitic
1946Kielce pogrom38–42 JewsViolence against the Jewish community centre, initiated by Polish Communist armed forces (LWPKBWGZI WP) and continued by a mob of local townsfolk.
1955Istanbul pogromIstanbul riots13–30 GreeksOrganized mob attacks directed primarily at Istanbul's Greek minority. Accelerated the emigration of ethnic Greeks from Turkey (Jews were also targeted in this event).[67][68]
19661966 anti-Igbo pogromA series of massacres directed at Igbo and other southern Nigerian residents throughout Nigeria before and after the overthrow (and assassination) of the Aguiyi-Ironsi junta by Murtala Mohammed.
1983Black July1983 anti-Tamil pogrom400–3,000 TamilsOver seven days mobs of mainly Sinhalese attacked Tamil targets, burning, looting and killing
19841984 anti-Sikh riots1984 anti-Sikh pogrom8,000 SikhsIn October 1984 anti-Sikh pogrom in Delhi, and other parts of India, Sikhs in India were targeted
1988Sumgait pogrom26+ Armenians and 6+ AzerisMobs made up largely of ethnic Azeris formed into groups that went on to attack and kill Armenians both on the streets and in their apartments; widespread looting and a general lack of concern from police officers allowed the situation to worsen
1988Kirovabad pogrom3+ Soviet soldiers, 3+ Azeris and 1+ ArmenianEthnic Azeris attacked Armenians throughout the city
19891989 Bangladesh pogromsAttacks against Bengali Hindus, apparently as a reaction to the laying of the foundation of Ram temple adjacent to the disputed structure in Ayodhya
1990Baku pogrom90 Armenians, 20 Russian soldiersSeven-day attack during which Armenians were beaten, tortured, murdered and expelled from the city. There were also many raids on apartments, robberies and arsons
1991Crown Heights pogrom (disputed)[k]Crown Heights riot1 Jew and 1 non-JewA three-day riot that occurred in the Crown Heights section of BrooklynNew York. The riots incited by the death of the seven-year-old Gavin Cato, unleashed simmering tensions of the Crown Heights' black community against the Orthodox Jewish community. In its wake, several Jews were seriously injured; one Orthodox Jewish man, Yankel Rosenbaum, was killed; and a non-Jewish man, allegedly mistaken by rioters for a Jew, was killed by a group of African-American men.[71][72]
1991Mława pogromFive days of rioting in which a mob attacked Roma residents of the Polish town of Mława causing hundreds to flee in terror
2002Gujarat Godhra Train BurningGodhra Train Burning59 Hindu pilgrims including 25 women and 15 children59 Hindus including 25 women and 15 children were killed in a coach. A court convicted 31 Muslims for the incident and the conspiracy for the crime.
2002Gujarat pogrom2002 Gujarat violence790–2,000 Muslims and 254 HindusInter-communal violence in the Indian state of Gujarat which lasted for approximately three days, sparked by the burning of a train of Hindu pilgrims
2004March pogrom2004 unrest in Kosovo8 ethnic Serbs and 11 ethnic AlbaniansOver 4,000 Serbs were forced to leave their homes, 935 Serb houses, 10 public facilities and 35 Serbian Orthodox church-buildings were desecrated, damaged or destroyed, and six towns and nine villages were ethnically cleansed according to Serbian media
20132013 Burma anti-Muslim riotsanti-Rohingya pogromRohingya MuslimsMuslims called the Rohingyas were targeted in the Buddhist-majority Myanmar.[73]

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