Thursday, March 19, 2015

Chronology: Anti-Semitism and Persecution of Jews From Ancient times

Chronology: Anti-Semitism and Persecution of Jews

From Ancient times

3rd cent. B.C.E.Manetho, Greco-Egyptian historian, says Jews were expelled from Egypt as lepers.
38 B.C.E.Anti-Jewish riots in Alexandria (Egypt): many Jews were killed, and all the Jews were confined to one quarter of the city.
19 C.E.Emperor Tiberius expels the Jews from Rome and Italy.
66Massacre of the Jews of Alexandria (Egypt) in which 50,000 were killed.
1st cent. C.E.Apion of Alexandria surpasses other Hellenistic anti-Semites in the crudeness of his fabrications.
200Tertullian, Church Father, writes his anti-Jewish polemic in Latin Adversus Judaeos.
325After the ecumenical council of Nicaea, the Christian Church formulates its policy toward the Jews: the Jews must continue to exist for the sake of Christianity in seclusion and humiliation.
386-387John Chrysostom, Church Father in the East, violently anti-Jewish, delivers eight sermons in Antioch.
438Theodosius II, Roman emperor of the East, legalizes the civil inferiority of the Jews.
468Persecutions of the Jews in Persia (Babylonia).
c. 470Jews persecuted in Persia (Babylonia) by Firuz, the exilarch, and many Jews killed and their children given to Mazdeans.
535-553Emperor Justinian I issues his novellae to Corpus Juris Civilis expressing his anti-Jewish policy.
612Visigothic king Sisebut of Spain inaugurates a policy of forcible conversion of all Jews in the kingdom.
624-628Jewish tribes of Hejaz (Arabia) destroyed by Muhammad.
628Dagobert I expels Jews from Frankish kingdom.
632Heraclius, Byzantine emperor, decrees forced baptism of all Jews in the Byzantine empire.
632Official Church doctrine on conversion of Jews in Spain formulated.
638Visigothic king Chintila compels the sixth council of Toledo to adopt resolution proclaiming that only Catholics may reside in the kingdom of Spain. Jews are expelled.
694-711All Jews under Visigothic rule in Spain declared slaves, their possessions confiscated and the Jewish religion outlawed.
717-20Caliph Omar II introduces series of discriminatory regulations against the dhimmi, the protected Christians and Jews, among them the wearing of a special garb.
1009-13Fatimid caliph Al-Hakim in Eretz Israel issues severe restrictions against Jews.
1012Emperor Henry II of Germany expels Jews from Mainz, the beginning of persecutions against Jews in Germany.
1096-99First Crusades. Crusaders massacre the Jews of the Rhineland (1096).
1144Blood libel at Norwich (England); first record, blood libel - Martyrdom of St. William of Norwich related in the Anglo-Saxon chronicle.
1146Anti-Jewish riots in Rhineland by the Crusaders of the second Crusades.
1147Beginning of the brutal persecution of the Jews of North Africa under the Almohads, lasted until 1212.
1182King Philip Augustus of France decrees the expulsion of the Jews from his kingdom and the confiscation of their real estate.
1190Anti-Jewish riots in England: massacre at York, and other cities.
1215Fourth Lateran Council introduces the Jewish Badge.
1235Blood libel  at Fulda, Germany.
1236Severe anti-Jewish persecutions in western France.
1240Disputation of Paris which led to the burning of the Talmud.
1242Burning of the Talmud at Paris.
1255Blood libel  at Lincoln, England.
1263Disputation of Barcelona.
1290Expulsion of the Jews from England, the first of the great general expulsions of the Middle Ages.
1298-99Rindfleisch Massacres -Massacre of thousands of Jews in 146 localities in southern and central  Germany led by the German knight Rindfleisch.
1306Expulsion of Jews from France.
1306-20Pastoureaux ("Shepherds"), participants of the second Crusade in France against the Muslims in Spain, attack the Jews of 120 localities in southwest France.
1321Persecutions against Jews in central France in consequence of a false charge of their supposed collusion with the lepers.
1321-22Expulsion from the kingdom of France.
1336-39Persecutions against Jews in Franconia and Alsace led by lawless German bands, theArmleder.
1348-50Black Death Massacres which spread throughout Spain, France, Germany and Austria, as a result of accusations that the Jews had caused the death of Christians by poisoning the wells and other water sources.
1389Massacre of the Prague (Bohemia) community.
1391Wave of massacres and conversions in Spain and Balearic Islands.
1394Expulsion from the kingdom of France.
1399Blood libel  in Poznan.
1411-12Oppressive legislation against Jews in Spain as an outcome of the preaching of the Dominican friar Vicente Ferrer.
1413-14Disputation of Tortosa (Spain). The most important and longest of the Christian-Jewish disputations the consequence of which was mass conversions and intensified persecutions.
1421Persecutions of Jews in Vienna and its environs, confiscation of their possessions, and conversion of Jewish children, 270 Jews burnt at stake, known as the Wiener Gesera(Vienna Edict). Expulsion of Jews from Austria.
1435Massacre and conversion of the Jews of Majorca.
1438Establishment of mellahs (ghettos) in Morocco.
1452-3John of Capistrano, Italian Franciscan friar, incites persecutions and expulsions of Jews from cities in Germany.
1473Marranos  (Marranos are converted Jews who supposedly maintained their Judaism in secret - the word is a disparaging term)  of Valladolid and Cordoba, in Spain massacred.
1474Marranos of Segovia, Spain, massacred.
1480Inquisition established in Spain.
1483Torquemada appointed inquisitor general of Spanish Inquisition. Expulsion of Jews from Warsaw.
1490-91Blood libel  in La Guardia, town in Spain, where the alleged victim (Christopher of Toledo)  became revered as a saint.
1492Expulsion from Spain.
1492-93Expulsion from Sicily.
1495Expulsion from Lithuania.
1496-97Expulsion from Portugal: mass forced conversion.
1506Lisbon Massacre - Massacre of Marranos  in Lisbon.
1510Expulsion of Jews from Brandenburg (Germany).
1516Venice initiates the ghetto, the first in Christian Europe.
1531Inquisition established in Portugal.
1535Jews of Tunisia expelled and massacred.
1541Expulsion from the kingdom of Naples. Expulsion from Prague and crown cities.
1544Martin Luther, German religious reformer, attacks the Jews with extreme virulence.
1550Expulsion from Genoa (Italy).
1551Expulsion from Bavaria.
1553Burning of the Talmud in Rome.
1554Censorship of Hebrew books introduced in Italy.
1555Bull Cum Nimis Absurdum established the ghetto in Rome
1556Burning of Marranos at Ancona, Italy.
1567Expulsion from the republic of Genoa (Italy).
1569, 1593Expulsion from the Papal States (Italy).
1614Vincent Fettmilch, anti-Jewish guild leader in Frankfort, Germany, and his followers attack the Jews of Frankfurt and forces them to leave the City.
1624Ghetto established at Ferrara (Italy).
1648-49Massacres initiated by Bogdan Chmielnicki, leader of the Cossacks, and peasant uprising against Polish rule in the Ukraine, in which 100,000 Jews were killed and 300 communities destroyed.
1650Jews of Tunisia confined to special quarters (Hדra).
1655-56Massacres of Jews during the wars of Poland against Sweden and Russia.
1670Expulsion from Vienna: Blood libel at Metz (France).
1711Johann Andreas Eisenmenger writes his Entdecktes Judenthum ("Judaism Unmasked"), a work denouncing Judaism and which had a formative influence on modern anti-Semitic polemics.
1712Blood libel in Sandomierz (Poland) after which the Jews of the town were expelled.
1715Pope Pius VI issues a severe "Edict concerning the Jews," in which he renews all former restrictions against them.
1734-36Haidamacks, paramilitary bands in Polish Ukraine, attack Jews.
1745Expulsion from Prague.
1768Haidamacks massacre the Jews of Uman (Poland) together with  Jews from other places who had sought refuge there.
1788Haidamacks massacre the Jews of Uman (Poland): 20,000 Jews and Poles killed.
1790-92Destruction of most of the Jewish communities of Morocco.
1791Pale of Settlements-twenty-five provinces of Czarist Russia established, where Jews permitted permanent residence: Jews forbidden to settle elsewhere in Russia.
1805Massacre of Jews in Algeria.
1819A series of anti-Jewish riots in Germany that spread to several neighboring countries (Denmark, Poland, Latvia and Bohemia) known as Hep_Hep Riots, from the derogatory rallying cry against the Jews in Germany. (HEP = 'Hierosolymos Est Perdita' - Jerusalem is lost, apparently first used in the Middle Ages in riots associated with the crusades.)
1827Compulsory military service for the Jews of Russia: Jewish minors under 18 years of age, known as "Cantonists," placed in preparatory military training establishments.
1835Oppressive constitution for the Jews in Russia issued by Czar Nicholas 1.
1840Blood libel in Damascus (The Damascus Affair). Blood libel in Rhodes
1853Blood libel in Saratov (Russia), bringing a renewal of the blood libel throughout Russia.
1858Abduction of a 7-year-old Jewish child, Edgard Mortara, in Bologna by Catholic conversionists (Mortara Case), an episode which aroused universal indignation in liberal circles.
1878Adolf Stoecker, German anti-Semitic preacher and politician, founds the Social Workers' Party, which marks the beginning of the political anti-Semitic movement in Germany.
1879Heinrich von Treitschke, German historian and politician, justifies the anti-Semitic campaigns in Germany, bringing anti-Semitism into learned circles.
1879Wilhelm Marr, German agitator, coins the term anti-Semitism.
1881-84Pogroms sweep southern Russia, beginning of mass Jewish emigration.
1882Blood libel in Tiszaeszlar, Hungary, which aroused public opinion throughout Europe.
1882First International Anti-Jewish Congress convened at Dresden, Germany.
1882A series of "temporary laws" confirmed by Czar Alexander III of Russia in May, 1882 ("May Laws"), which adopted a systematic policy of discrimination, with the object of removing the Jews from their economic and public positions.
1885Expulsion of about 10,000 Russian Jews, refugees of 1881-1884 pogroms, from Germany.
1891Blood libel in Xanten, Germany.
1891Expulsion from Moscow, Russia.
1893Karl Lueger establishes in Vienna the anti-Semitic Christian Social Party and becomes mayor in 1897.
1894Dreyfus Affair - Alfred Dreyfus trial in Paris..
1895Alexander C. Cuza organizes the Alliance Anti-semitique Universelle in Bucharest, Rumania.
1899Houston Stewart Chamberlain, racist and anti-Semitic author, publishes his Die Grundlagen des 19 Jahrhunderts which became a basis of National-Socialist ideology.
1899Blood libel in Bohemia (the Hilsner case).
1903Kishinev Pogrom
1905Russian Pogroms - 1905 - Pogroms in the Ukraine and Bessarabia, perpetrated in 64 towns (most serious in Odessa with over 300 dead and thousands wounded).
1905First Russian public edition of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion appears.
1906Pogroms In Bialystok and Siedlce, Russia.
1909-10Polish boycott against Jews.
1911-13Menahem Mendel Beilis, blood libel trial at Kiev.
1912Pogroms in Fez (Morocco).
1915Ku Klux Klan, racist organization in the U.S., refounded.
1917-21Russian Civil War Pogroms - Pogroms in the Ukraine and Poland. 1) Pogroms by retreating Red Army from the Ukraine (spring, 1918), before the German army. 2) Pogroms by the retreating Ukraine army under the command of Simon Petlyura,. 3)Pogroms by the counter revolutionary "White Army" under the command of General A.I. Denikin (fall, 1919) 4) Pogroms by the "White Army" in Siberia and Mongolia (1919). 5) Pogroms by anti-Soviet bands in the Ukraine (1920-21). 6) Pogroms in Poland including Galicia and Warsaw.  Some 50,000- 200,000 Jews in all are killed in this period. 
1919Abolition of community organization and non-Communist Jewish institutions in Soviet Russia.
1919Pogroms in Hungary: c. 3,000 Jews killed.
1920Adolf Hitler becomes Fuehrer, of the National-Sozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP), (NAZIs)
1920Henry Ford I begins a series of anti-Semitic articles based on the Protocols of the Elders of Zion, in his Dearbon Independent.
1924Economic restrictions on Jews in Poland.
1925-27Adolf Hitier's Mein Kampf appears.
1933Adolf Hitler appointed chancellor of Germany. Anti-Jewish economic boycott: first concentration camps (Dachau, Oranienburg, Esterwegen and Sachsenburg).
1935Nuremberg Laws introduced.
1937Anti-Semitic legislation in Rumania.
1937Discrimination against Jews in Polish universities.
1938After Anschlusspogroms in Vienna, anti-Jewish legislation introduced: deportations to camps in Austria and Germany.
1938Charles E. Coughlin, Roman Catholic priest, starts anti-Semitic weekly radio broadcasts in U.S.
1938July 6-16, Evian Conference on Jewish refugees at Evian les Bains verifies that the world has shut its doors against Jewish refugees.
1938Kristallnacht Nazi anti-Jewish outrage in Germany and Austria (Nov. 9-10, 1938): Jewish businesses attacked, synagogues burnt, Jews sent to concentration camps.
1938Racial legislation introduced in Italy (Nov. 17, 1938). Anti Jewish economic legislation in Hungary.
1939Anti-Jewish laws introduced in the Protectorate (Czechoslovakia).
1939Outbreak of World War 11 (Sept. 1, 1939), Poland overrun by German army: pogroms in Poland; beginning of the Holocaust.
1940Nazi Germany introduces gassing.
1940Formation of ghettos in Poland: mass shootings of Jews: Auschwitz camp, later an extermination camp, established; Western European Jews under Nazis. Belzec extermination camp established.
1940Algerian administration applies social laws of Vichy.
1941Germany invades Russia and the Baltic states. Majdanek extermination camp established. Chelmno and Treblinka extermination camps established. Anti-Jewish laws in Slovakia.Pogroms in Jassy (Iasi), Rumania. Pogroms and massacres by the Einsatzgruppen and native population in Baltic states and the part of Russia occupied by Germany. Expulsions of Jews from the German Reich to Poland. Beginning of deportation and murder of Jews in France.
1941Farhud - Pogrom against Jews in Iraq in consequence of Rashid Ali al-Jilani's coup d'יtat. Nazi Germany introduces gassing in extermination camps .Babi Yar massacre.
1942Wannsee Conference - Conference in Wannsee, Berlin, to carry out the "Final Solution" (Jan. 20, 1942). Beginning of mass transports of Jews of Belgium and Holland to Auschwitz. Massacres in occupied Russia continue. Death camps of Auschwitz, Majdanek and Treblinka begin to function at full capacity: transports from ghettos to death camps. Sobibor extermination camp established.
1943Germany declared Judenrein. Transports of Jews from all over Europe to death camps.Warsaw Ghetto Uprising and final liquidation of the Warsaw ghetto (May 16, 1943). Annihilation of most of the ghettos. Transport of Italian Jews to death camps.
1944Extermination of Hungarian Jewry.
1945Germany surrenders (May 8, 1945) estimated Jewish victims in the Holocaust 5,820,960.
1946Pogromsat Kielce , Poland, 42 Jews murdered and many wounded (July 4, 1946).
1948Jewish culture in U.S.S.R. suppressed and Jewish intellectuals shot.
1948Pogroms in Libya and elsewhere in the Arab world.
1952Prague Trials (Slonsk‎): Murder of Yiddish intellectuals in Russia and many Jews disappear or sent to work camps.
1953Accusation of "Doctors' plot" in the U.S.S.R., cancelled with Stalin's death.
1954-6Jews of Egypt expelled.
1961Mustapha Tlass, Defense Minister of Syria, publishes a history of the Damascus blood libelwhich claims that Jews actually do murder Christian children.
1967Arabic version of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion published in Egypt.
1968Fresh wave of anti-Semitism in Poland; emigration of most of the remaining Jews of Poland.
1969Jews executed in Iraq.
1970Leningrad, and other trials of Soviet Jews, who agitate for right to emigrate.
2005Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, President of Iran, claims that the Holocaust was a myth or exaggerated, vows to achieve a "world without Zionism and Israel."

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