Thursday, March 19, 2015

From Haven to Home: 350 Years of Jewish Life in America Timeline 1900s

YearWorld EventsAmerican Jewish EventsAmerican Events
Sigmund Freud publishes The Interpretation of Dreams
1900 Paris Exposition
Jewish population estimated at between 938,000 -1.058 million (1.23-1.39 percent of total population)
Workmen's Circle is established in New York to promote mutual aid, Yiddish culture, and labor solidarity among Jewish workers
International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union is founded

The Industrial Removal Office is established to help relocate Jewish immigrants from the Lower East Side, New York, to communities across the United States
President William McKinley is assassinated; Vice-President Theodore Roosevelt becomes the U.S. President

Agudath ha-Rabbanim, the Union of Orthodox Rabbis, is founded in New York

1903Kishineff Massacre
Forty-nine Jews are killed and 92 are severely wounded in the Kishinev pogram
Settlers of the Second Aliyah begin to arrive in Palestine
A bronze tablet containing Emma Lazarus's poem, "The New Colossus" is affixed to the base of the Statue of Liberty
Wright Brothers
Orville and Wilbur Wright make first sustained airplane flight
U.S. gains control over the Panama Canal
Henry Ford founds Ford Motor Company

American Jews celebrate the 250th anniversary of receiving the right to settle in New Amsterdam


In response to the Kishinev pogroms, the American Jewish Committee is founded to safeguard Jewish rights internationally
Oscar Straus is appointed Secretary of Labor and Commerce, the first Jew to hold a U.S. Cabinet post
San Francisco earthquake
Upton Sinclair writes The Jungle
1909Robert E. Peary
Robert E. Peary reaches the North Pole

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People is founded
Protesting intolerable working conditions, 20,000 shirtwaist makers go on strike
Roald Amundsen reaches South Pole
Triangle Shirtwais Fire sheet music, 1911
One hundred and forty-six women die tragically in the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire in New York
Titanic sinks on maiden voyage across Atlantic ocean
Henrietta Szold
Henrietta Szold founds Hadassah, the Women's Zionist Organization of America
Financier and philanthropist Jacob Schiff purchases large Hebrew book collection for Library of Congress, leading to the establishment of the Semitic Division in the following year

In Kiev, Mendel Beilis, target of a blood libel, is acquitted after a sensational trial
B'nai B'rith founds the Anti-Defamation League to combat anti-Semitism in the United States, in response to the Atlanta trial of Leo Frank, a Jewish factory manager wrongly accused of murder

World War I begins
During First World War, Russian forces in retreat drive 600,000 Jews from their homes
American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee is founded to provide funds and assistance for Jewish war relief
First boarding house for Jewish vacationers opens in the Catskills, which will lead to the development of the area into a major vacation destination of national reputation
Panama Canal
Panama Canal is opened

A mob kidnaps and lynches Leo Frank on learning that the governor of Georgia had committed Frank's death sentence to life in prison


Louis Brandeis
Louis Brandeis becomes first Jewish Supreme Court justice

Russian Revolution brings Vladimir Lenin to power in Russia
Balfour Declaration declares that the British government favors the establishment of a Jewish homeland in Palestine

United States enters World War I

American Jewish Congress is founded to help secure Jewish rights in post-War Europe and Palestine
Worldwide influenza epidemic strikes, killing more than 25 million people over two years
Prohibition begins
Anarchist Emma Goldman is deported to the Soviet Union

League of Nations is established in Geneva, Switzerland, and the United States does not join
Jewish population: between 3.3-3.6 million (3.12-3.41 percent of total population)
Women casting votes in New York
Constitutional amendment grants women the right to vote
Henry Ford publishes anti-Semitic propaganda in his newspaper, The Dearborn Independent

Margaret Sanger forms the America Birth Control League, the predecessor to Planned Parenthood Clinics

Mordecai M. Kaplan founds the Society for the Advancement of Judaism, the cradle of the Reconstructionist movement; Judith Kaplan (Eisenstein), Kaplan's daughter, celebrates first American Bat Mitzvah


George Gershwin
George Gershwin composes "Rhapsody in Blue"

Immigration Act severely limits immigration
Hebrew University opens in Jerusalem with American rabbi Judah L. Magnes as chancellor
First volume of Adolf Hitler's Mein Kampfis published
Florence Prag Kahn of San Francisco becomes the first Jewish woman elected to the U.S. House of Representatives
The Scopes Trial puts the theory of evolution on trial
Charles Levine becomes the first transatlantic air passenger
Warner Brothers produces drama of Jewish acculturation, The Jazz Singer, the first film with sound
Charles A. Lindbergh flies solo across the Atlantic
Alexander Fleming formulates penicillin
Yeshiva College is dedicated in New York
The first chair in Jewish history at a secular university in the United States is endowed at Columbia University
First scheduled television broadcast in New York

U.S. Stock market crashes on October 29th
Mahatma Gandhi leads the March to the Sea, where thousands gather to protest a government tax on salt
Jewish population: between 4.228–4.4 million (3.44–3.58 percent of total population)


Empire State Building
Construction of Empire State Building completed, making it the tallest building in the world at the time

Amelia Earhart is the first female pilot to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean
1933Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein leaves his academic post in Nazi Germany to reside in United States
Adolf Hitler becomes German chancellor, and initiates a series of anti-Jewish actions
The American Jewish Congress declares a boycott of German goods to protest the Nazi persecution of Jews
Franklin D. Roosevelt is inaugurated President

Hank Greenberg, first baseman for the Detroit Tigers, refuses to play on Yom Kippur

Nuremberg Laws deprive German Jews of their civil rights

Spanish Civil War begins
Edward VIII abdicates the British throne to wed American divorcee Wallis Simpson

Pablo Picasso paints Guernica

Golden Gate Bridge
Golden Gate Bridge is completed in San Francisco
1938Berlin Jewish shop owners and wreckage, photograph 1938
German synagogues and Jewish businesses are destroyed on Kristallnacht, or "The Night of Broken Glass"
Germany annexes Austria
Father Charles E. Coughlin launches a media campaign against Jews on his popular radio program and in his widely-read magazine, Social Justice
Germany invades Poland, World War II begins

America refuses entry to the St. Louiscarrying 907 Jewish refugees from Germany
Irving Berlin introduces his song "God Bless America"
Winston Churchill becomes Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
Jewish population: between 4.77 and 4.83 million (3.63-3.68 percent of total population)
First electron microscope is demonstrated in New Jersey

Japan attacks Pearl Harbor and the United States officially enters World War II

Rabbi Stephen S. Wise receives the "Riegner Telegram" confirming the Nazi intention to murder the Jews of Europe and turns to the State Department for help
War Relocation Authority interns Japanese Americans
Electronic computer is developed in the U.S.
"Manhattan Project" of atomic research begins
1944D-Day-Normandy invasion
D-Day. Allied forces attack at the beaches of Normandy, France
Camp for Jewish war refugees is opened at Oswego, New York
Franklin Delano Roosevelt establishes the War Refugee Board
World War II ends
International tribunal for war crimes is established at Nuremberg
United Nations is established
Bess Myerson
Bess Myerson becomes the first Jewish woman to win the Miss America Pageant
President Franklin Roosevelt dies in office and Vice-President Harry S Truman takes over
U.S. drops atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, ending World War II
Winston Churchill gives his "Iron Curtain" speech in Missouri

Bernard Baruch presents the U.S. policy statement for the control of atomic energy to the United Nations
Dead Sea Scrolls are discovered in the Judean desert
The U.N. General Assembly votes to partition Palestine into two states, one Jewish and one Arab

Marshall Plan for post-war recovery of European nations is introduced
State of Israel is established
Mahatma Gandhi is assassinated in India
Brandeis University is founded as first nonsectarian, Jewish-sponsored, institution of higher education
President Harry S Truman recognizes the State of Israel within its first hour of existence
U.S. Congress passes the Marshall Plan
Chaim Weizmann is elected first president of Israel
N.A.T.O. treaty signed

The Korean War breaks out
Jewish population: between 4.5 and 5 million (2.98-3.31 percent of total population)


Color television is introduced
Yiddish writers and other Jewish cultural figures are executed in the U.S.S.R. on "Night of the Murdered Poets"
Elizabeth II becomes Queen of England

James Watson and Francis Crick decipher the structure of DNA

Julius and Ethel Rosenberg are convicted and executed for espionage
1954American Jewish Tercentenary medal, 1954
American Jewish community celebrates tercentenary of Jewish life in America
Stern College for Women is created as a branch of Yeshiva University in New York City
Supreme Court issues ruling in Brown v. Board of Education ending legal segregation in U.S. schools
The phrase "under God" is added to the Pledge of Allegiance

Dr. Jonas Salk
Polio vaccine is developed by Jonas Salk and is licensed for use
Martin Luther King Jr. initiates the bus boycott to end racial segregation on public transportation in the South
Suez Canal Crisis

The Soviet Union launches Sputnik I into orbit and begins the "space race"


For That Extra Tangy Taste by Bill Mauldin, 1958.
Reform Jewish Temple in Atlanta is dynamited by a group of extreme segregationists
Leonard Bernstein
Leonard Bernstein becomes first American-born musician to be appointed Music Director and Conductor of the New York Philharmonic Symphony
19591959, Liberacion poster with Fidel Castro
Fidel Castro takes power in Cuba

Alaska and Hawaii become the 49th and 50th states
Adolf Eichmann is captured and later stands trial in Israel for World War II crimes against Jews and humanity
Exodus poster, 1961
The movie version of Leon Uris's novelExodus is released
Berlin Wall goes up, dividing East and West Germany


President John F. Kennedy is assassinated
Martin Luther King Jr. delivers his "I Have a Dream" speech on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C.

Student Struggle for Soviet Jewry founded to protest Soviet anti-Jewish policies
Fiddler on the Roof opens on Broadway
Thousands of activists travel to Mississippi to register African-American voters during Freedom Summer. Three, Michael Schwerner, Andrew Goodman, and James Chaney, are murdered

Abraham Joshua Heschel walks with Martin Luther King Jr.
Abraham Joshua Heschel walks with Martin Luther King Jr. on civil rights march from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama
"Six Day War" between Israel and its neighbors

Polish government outlaws Jewish language and institutions

Martin Luther King Jr. and Robert F. Kennedy are assassinated

Association for Jewish Studies founded
Vietnam War protest march
Vietnam War protests take place across the country
Neil Armstrong becomes first man on moon

Jewish population estimated at between 5.37 and 6 million (2.64-2.95 percent of total population)

Eleven Israeli Olympians in Munich are murdered in terrorist attack
Hebrew Union College ordains Sally J. Priesand, making her America's first woman rabbi

"Yom Kippur War" between Israel and its neighbors
The first National Jewish Women's Conference is held in New York, attended by over 400 women


Jackson-Vanick amendment passes, linking free emigration from Russia to "most favored nation" trade status
In the aftermath of the Watergate Scandal, President Richard M. Nixon resigns
The Concorde, a supersonic jet, takes flight and starts regular service between London, Paris, and U.S.
Lilith, the Jewish feminist magazine, begins publication
The United States of America celebrates its bicentennial

First flight of space shuttle
Camp David Accords result in peace treaty between Israel and Egypt
First "test-tube" baby is born in England
Yiddish writer Isaac Bashevis Singer is awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature
American Nazi party marches in Skokie, Illinois
Margaret Thatcher becomes first woman prime minister of Britain
Shah of Iran is ousted and Ayatollah Khomeini sets up an Islamic Republic

U.S. hostages are taken in Iran
Three Mile Island nuclear accident
First Jewish film festival is held in San Francisco
Mount St. Helens erupts in Washington state
1981Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat is assassinated

Sandra Day O'Connor becomes the first woman appointed to the U.S. Supreme Court
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is identified

Jewish Theological Seminary votes to ordain women as Conservative rabbis
Sally Ride becomes the first American female astronaut
Israel launches "Operation Moses," the clandestine airlift of 25,000 Ethiopian Jews in Sudanese refugee camps to Israel (through 1985)
Madeleine M. Kunin is elected governor of Vermont, becoming the first Jewish woman governor in the United States
Shoshana Cardin of Baltimore becomes the first woman president of the National Council of Jewish Federations
Macintosh computer with "mouse" is launched
15,000 Holocaust survivors gather in Washington, D.C
Chernobyl nuclear reactor disaster in Ukraine
Elie Wiesel wins Nobel Peace Prize
Space shuttle Challenger explodes
Soviet Union permits Jews to emigrate freely
The Berlin Wall falls
Tiananmen Square Massacre

Anti-apartheid activist Nelson Mandela is freed in South Africa

Republics of the Soviet Union gain independence

U.S. and allies begin Operation Desert Storm
NAFTA Trade Pact signed by U.S., Canada, and Mexico
The first Jewish women senators, Dianne Feinstein and Barbara Boxer, are elected to the U.S. Senate – representing California

Oslo Accord between Israel and the Palestinian Authority are signed in a ceremony on the White House lawn
Ruth Bader Ginsburg
Ruth Bader Ginsburg becomes first Jewish woman Supreme Court justice
The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum opens in Washington, D.C.
Yitzhak Rabin is assassinated

Oklahoma City bombing of U.S. federal building

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