[Dave Hunt, 'The Battle For Jerusalem, Chapter 6 of 'The Gathering Storm', Mal Couch Gen Ed, 21st Century Press, Springfield, MO, 2005, p. 129]:
"Events transpiring in the
Middle East relative to and making today's headlines are not
chance occurrences but precise fulfillments of what God through His Hebrew
prophets foretold for these 'last days.' Each day's news adds fresh proof that
the biblical God is the one true God and that the Bible alone is His inspired
Word to mankind. We see unfolding before us precisely what God said He would
cause Israel and the nations around her to experience. Israel
In one of the most awesome and frightening prophecies for the future, God declares, 'I will gather all the nations [and He means all] against
to battle, and the city will be
captured... Then the LORD will go forth and fight against those nations...'
(Zech 14:1-3). When this will occur we do not know - but as events in the
Middle East come to a climax, we may be certain that ultimately a world that is
in defiance of God in so many ways, not the least of which is its attitude
toward Israel, is headed for the fulfillment of this prophecy. Jerusalem
A) THE GOD OF THE BIBLE DECLARES THAT AS THE END OF TIME DREW NEAR ALL NATIONS WOULD BE UNITED AGAINST
"God declared that as the end drew near He would make
'a cup that causes reeling to all the
peoples around,' and that they would all be united against Jerusalem (Zech 12:2-3). And so it is. Ancient
Israel had many independent enemies at various times, but ever since Israel's
rebirth in 1948, for the first time in history, all the countries surrounding
her are united to destroy her. Israel
It is Islam - not in existence until 1,200 years after this prophecy and 2,000 years after the birth of
- that unites these nations (who
otherwise would be fighting one another) in the common goal of annihilating Israel . In obedience to Islam, Muslims have
pursued that passion fiercely for nearly 60 years. Israel
The dispute is over ownership of
and the 'promised land' God gave to
Abraham and his heirs. The Israelis are Abraham's heirs by descent from him
through Isaac and Jacob, whose name God change to Jerusalem . In opposition, Arabs who call themselves
'Palestinians' make the impossible claim of descent both from Abraham through
Ishmael and also from the original 'Palestinian' inhabitants of that land. But
Abraham was from Israel of the Chaldees and Hagar, Ishmael's
mother (Sarah's maid), was an Egyptian. Certainly neither Ishmael's mother nor
father was a descendant of the 'original inhabitants' of Ur Canaan.
In fact, there never was a Palestinian people, nation, government, language, religion, culture, economy or history! This claim by Semitic Arabs of being descendants of a non-Semitic people who allegedly lived for thousands of years in a land called Palestine is a blatant hoax intended to delegitimize the Israelis and claim the land of Israel for themselves. Yet the world accepts this fraud, and all of the peace plans for the
Middle East are founded upon it!
Both sides agree that God gave the
(which became land of Canaan ) to Abraham and to his heirs forever [and
it was never rescinded ever!]; and that Ishmael was Abraham's firstborn son,
whereas Isaac was the second [but the firstborn of Sarah and of the promise].
The custom in Abraham's day, acknowledged in the Torah, gave the firstborn
prior claim to the inheritance. The Torah also records the fact that Abraham
was satisfied with Ishmael as his sole heir, considered him to be the son God
had promised, and didn't even want God to give him another son (Gen 17:18). Israel
From those facts, the Arab descendants of Ishmael sound like the legitimate heirs. However, there was no such land as 'Palestine' in Abraham's day and thus no such people as 'Palestinians' from whom any of today's Arabs could claim descent. In fact, Ishmael's descendants settled in the
Arabian Peninsula hundreds of miles from the land God gave
God brought Abraham into the 'land of
Canaan...and the Canaanite [not the
'Palestinian'] was then in the land' (Gen 12:5-6). God gave that land by an
everlasting covenant to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob - not to
Ishmael. In obedience to God, Abraham 'settled in the ' (Gen ). It was then inhabited by Canaanites,
Kenites, Kenizites, Kadmonites, Hittites, Perizzites, Rephaims, Amorites,
Girgashites and Jebusites' (Gen 12:6; 13:7; 15:18-21; 23:10; etc.). If today's
'Palestinian' Arabs are descended from the original inhabitants of the land of Canaan , which ones of those listed above would
it be? In fact, no descendants of the original inhabitants of land of Canaan Canaan have survived to this day.
B) WHAT DOES THE NAME
The word 'Palestinian' is never found in Scripture. The term '
' is used four times in the King James
Version (Exodus ); Isaiah , 31; Joel 3:4) but never as synonymous
with either the Palestine or the land of Canaan . The Hebrew word is pelensheth and
referred to a small region also known as land of Israel Philistia (Psalms 60:8, 87:4, 108:9), the land of
the Pelishtee, or Philistines. It was in the area of the Strip of today, so named after the
Philistine city of Gaza . Their other cities were Gaza , Ashdod (home of Goliath), Gerar and Ekron. Gath
Those who currently claim to be Palestinians are Arabs who moved in from surrounding countries to feed off the prosperity of the returning Jews, who had turned desert and malaria-infested swamps (at the cost of many lives) into prosperous farms. Even today the 'Palestinians' mostly look to
for employment. Israel
Nor can any descendants of Ishmael claim that land. God rejected Abraham's desire for Ishmael to be the son of promise. Rather, he was the product of Sarah's and Abraham's unbelief and conniving. God insisted upon giving a son called Isaac to Abraham by his wife, Sarah - and He did so, naming him as the sole heir, a fact that the Bible makes very clear (Gen 17:19, 21). Thereafter, God referred to Isaac as Abraham's 'only son' (Gen 22:2).
Biblically, there is no question that God selected Isaac to be the heir to the Promised Land. That fact is stated not only in Genesis 17 but repeated throughout both Old and New Testaments. Twelve times the God of the Bible is called 'the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob [
]'; more than 200 times He calls Himself,
or is called, 'the God of Israel .' Never is He called 'the God of
Ishmael,' much less is He ever called the God of the Arabs or of anyone else.
Hear the Word of the Lord: 'Remember His covenant forever, the word which He
commanded to a thousand generations... which he made with Abraham, and His oath
to Isaac... also confirmed it to Jacob for a statute, to Israel as an
everlasting covenant... to you I will give the land of Canaan [for] your
inheritance..' (1 Chron. 16:15-18). Israel
Furthermore, God clearly tells Abraham (Gen 15:13-16) that his heirs to whom the land will be given will be afflicted by another nation for 400 years and only then will they be brought into the Promised Land. It is indisputable history that this slavery happened to the Jews in
, not to the Arabs. There were two reasons
for Egypt 's lengthy enslavement: Israel
(1) At the time of God's promise to Abraham, the wickedness of the Canaanites was not yet so great as to justify destroying them - but in 400 years it would be.
(2) Isolated in Egypt, the Israelites, as despised slaves, did not intermarry with the Egyptians but became an established ethnic group to be led en masse into the Promised Land - and we know who they are today.
In contrast, the descendants of Ishmael were a nomadic people prone to intermarry with those with whom they traded. The Bible records at least three groups with whom Ishmael's descendants intermarried: the Midianites, to the extent that sometimes the Midianites are called Ishmaelites and sometimes the Ishmaelites are called Midianites (Judg. 8:1, 22, 12, 24); and Esau's Edomite descendants (Gen 28:9), who had already intermarried with the Hittities (26:34-35). Far from being taken by God into
Canaan, they settled in the Arabian Peninsula, where they became known as Arabs.
C) THE QUR'AN STIPULATES THAT
BELONGS TO THE ISRAELITES JERUSALEM
' is found 811 times in the Bible, it is
never mentioned once in the Qur'an, nor are the words ' Jerusalem ' or ' Palestine Canaan.' Moreover, the Qur'an agrees with the
Bible that the land was given to and possessed by these 'chosen people'
after their deliverance from Pharaoh at the Israel Red Sea:
'We made a covenant of old with the Children of Israel (Surah 5:70); We brought the Children of Israel across the [Red] sea, and Pharaoh with his hosts pursued them...and we verily did allot unto the Children of Israel a fixed abode (10:91, 94); we favored them above all peoples (45:16); [Pharaoh]wished to scare them from the land, but we drowned him and those with him [in the Red Sea] all together. And we said unto the Children of
... dwell in the land [and] hereafter we shall bring
you... out of various nations' (17:103-104); we delivered the
Children of Israel ... from Pharaoh... We chose them,
purposely, above all creatures (44:30-32); Remember Allah's favor to you... He...
gave you what he gave no other of his creatures. O my people, go into the Israel Holy Land which Allah hath ordained for you (95:20-21); etc.
Yet in spite of these clear declarations in the Qur'an, Muslims insist that this land belongs not to the Jews as descendants of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, but to the Arabs as descendants of Abraham and Ishmael. Therefore,
's very existence and, above all, its
'occupation' of Israel , are intolerable insults to Islam. Only
by driving the Jews from what the world erroneously calls ' Jerusalem ' can Arab/Muslim honor be restored. Palestine
In A.D. 130, the Romans, who had destroyed
60 years before, rebuilt it as a pagan
city with a temple to Jupiter on temple mount. An uprising of the Jews in
protest was finally quelled in A.D. 135 at the cost of about 500,000 Jewish
lives, with thousands sold into slavery and many thousands driven into exile.
To spite the Jews, the Roman conquerors angrily renamed Jerusalem , 'Provincia Syria-Palaestina' after the
Philistines. From the time, those living there were known as 'Palestinians.'
Who lived there? Jews! It is they who became known as 'Palestinians.' Yet
Bibles by major publishers have maps with such labels as ' Israel Under the Maccabees,' or ' Palestine in the Time of Christ.' Such maps promote
a grave error. Palestine
In World War II, the British Army had a volunteer brigade called 'The Palestinian Brigade.' It was made up of Jews; the Arabs were fighting on Hitler's side. There was the Palestinian Post, a Jewish newspaper, and the Palestinian Symphony Orchestra, a Jewish orchestra. In fact, Arabs refused to be called 'Palestinians.' For example, to the 1946 Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry, Arab historian Philip Hitti declared, 'There is no such thing as
in history, absolutely not...' Palestine
In 1956, Ahmed Shukairy testified to the UN Security Council, 'It is common knowledge that
is nothing but southern Palestine .' Eight years later, in 1964, Shukairy,
an Egyptian, became the first leader of the Syria Liberation Organization later headed by
Arafat. He is also not a 'Palestinian' but was born in Palestine on Cairo August 4, 1929. What was the PLO going to 'liberate' in
1964? East Jerusalem and the West Bank were held by Jordan, while held the Egypt Strip. In fact, the PLO was not formed to
liberate 'Palestinians' but to destroy Gaza - and without any of the fundamental
causes it now claims. Israel
Always the problems between
and 'Palestinians' are blamed upon Israel . That despised country alone is
castigated - basically for defending itself - while those who make no secret of
their determination to destroy her are justified in their terrorism and
unprovoked aggression. This is true at the UN, in world media, and even at
various religious 'peace' conferences. Israel
The 'Fifth International Conference of the
,' held at Sabeel Ecumenical Palestinian Liberation Theology Center , Jerusalem April 14-18, 2004, was typical. It drew more than 600
participants from over 30 countries. Speakers such as Archimandrite Attallah
Hanna of the Greek Orthodox Church (outspoken supporter of suicide bombers)
trashed the Scriptures, rejecting all of God's promises to . Roman Catholic theologian Michael Prior
described the Book of Exodus as 'a con job' and Joshua as 'the patron saint of
ethnic cleansers.' The Dean of Te Israel in Rau Kahikatea Anglican Theological College , Convener of the Global Anglican Peace
and Justice Network, described Christian Zionism (the belief that the New Zealand , as promised by God, belongs to the Jews)
as 'a manifest evil [an] insidious presence.' land of Israel
Israel is presented at such conferences, as it is at the United Nations and in world media, as the aggressor, a land grabber illegally occupying 'Palestinian' land taken from its rightful owners by brute force. As we have seen, those who call themselves 'Palestinians' (a name taken from the Philistines, Israel's ancient enemy, a heritage claimed by Arafat), claim to be descended from the original inhabitants of 'Palestine.' This bold scam, honored as truth, is foundational to world opinion about the
Middle East. The Philistines were not a Semitic
people. They invaded Canaan across the Mediterranean from Crete and Asia Minor and displaced certain Canaanites, just as they were eventually
displaced by under God's judgment. The 'Palestinians'
of today are Arab Semites and have no ethnic, linguistic or historical
relationship to the Philistines. Israel
The truth is suppressed that UN Declaration 181, November 29, 1947, gave Israel only about 18 percent of the land that the League of Nations in its 1922 Declaration of Principles set aside for a Jewish homeland. Unhappy with being given only 82 percent of what didn't belong to them, and demanding it all, six Arab nations attacked the new state of
with their regular armies. The invading
Arab military high command warned all Arabs and Muslims to get out while they
quickly slaughtered the Israeli settlers - then the Arabs who had fled could
return to their possessions and take over everything. Israel
To the world's astonishment, the united Arab armies were soundly defeated by poorly armed Jewish settlers, and most of those who heeded the warning and fled were never able to return. War is like that - and it was a war the Arabs started. Arabs who did not flee, but honored Israeli pleas to remain, have, with their descendants, full rights as citizens and comprise about 16 percent of Israeli voters. Some are even members of the Knesset. In contrast, no Jew can set foot in
or be a citizen even in those Muslim
countries that will admit them. Had the Arabs not attacked Saudi Arabia , they could have been living in peace
since 1948 in their 'Palestinian' state. Israel
In that 1948-49 war,
took and held Jordan East Jerusalem and the so-called West Bank, while got the Egypt Strip. During the 19 years that they held
these territories and used them as launching pads for terrorism, there was
never a word from the Arab/Muslim world about a 'Palestinian' state. Instead,
they put the refugees in camps and have kept them in squalid conditions,
refusing to absorb them into normal society. In contrast, tiny Gaza integrated about twice as many Jewish
refugees (nearly 800,000) who fled at the same time from Muslim countries
where, for 1,300 years since the inception of Islam, they had been brutalized
and murdered by the thousands in periodic pogroms. With the establishment of a
national Jewish homeland, they could flee at last. But in all the sympathy
poured out for refugees, it is always the 'Palestinians,' with no mention of
the Jewish refugees, who had to abandon everything and escape with only their
Zechariah's prophecy and its precise fulfillment are all the more remarkable when one considers that the Arab/Muslim nations surrounding Israel have 650 times the land mass (rich in minerals and oil, of which Israel has almost none), 50 times the population, armed forces far outnumbering Israel in men and equipment and the backing of huge oil revenues. Yet in spite of these impossible odds, that miniscule nation has been exactly what God said it would be: '...a torch of fire in a sheaf [to] devour all the people round about...' (12:6).
has won every war, against impossible
Zechariah also said that God would make
a burdensome stone around the necks of
'all the people of the earth.' And once again, so it is. Jerusalem is the number-one problem confronting the
world. It is no secret that mankind faces the prospect of a nuclear holocaust
if this dispute over Jerusalem is not solved peacefully. The united
enemies surrounding Jerusalem are feverishly arming themselves to
effect at last Hitler's 'final solution to the Jewish problem.' Israel can deliver from submarines missiles with
multiple nuclear warheads and will not allow its citizens to be massacred
without using its ultimate weapons. As one more fulfillment of this amazing
prophecy, the Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) are the best in the world. Were that
not the case, tiny Israel could easily be pushed around and would be a burden
to no one, much less to the entire world. Israel
How heavy is this 'burdensome stone?' The United Nations has consumed one-third of its time deliberating over
and Jerusalem , a small, despised nation with
one-thousandth of the earth's population. From 1967 through 1989, out of 865
resolutions in the Security Council and General Assembly, 526 were against Israel . The last anti-Arab vote was 57 years ago
in 1947. More than 60,000 individual votes have been cast in the UN condemning Israel . Israel
Yet not once has the UN reprimanded those who have without provocation waged four wars against
with the declared intention of annihilating
her. Nor have the terrorists ever been condemned by the UN. In November 2003, Israel introduced its first request for a
resolution since 1976, asking for a prohibition against Arab terrorists who
deliberately target Israeli women and children. Its request was rejected and,
instead, the UN adopted a resolution demanding protection of Palestinian
children from Israeli aggression. The UN's adamant opposition to Israel and everything it does is in defiance of
the God of Israel and His pledge to restore His people to
their promised land. Israel
March 25, 2004, the blocked a proposed UN Security Council
condemnation of United States 's targeted killing of Hamas founder and
leader Sheikh Ahmed Yassin, because the Council refused to include a condemnation
of Hamas terrorist attacks on Israeli civilians. The next month, an Israeli
missile also killed Yassin's successor, Abdul-Aziz Rantisi. Again, there was a
worldwide denunciation of the execution of a mass murderer terrorist leader,
but no condemnation for the hundreds of suicide bombers Hamas has trained,
equipped and sent into Israel deliberately to kill civilians. Israel
The frequent condemnations of
for defending herself, and the refusal to
condemn the murderers and their backers who attack her, is a further
fulfillment of numerous prophecies foretelling worldwide anti-Semitism. It did
not end with Hitler's holocaust. Satan has been attempting to wipe out all Jews
since the beginning. If he could have done so before Christ came, he would have
won his battle with God by preventing the prophesied Messiah from being born.
Even after Christ defeated Satan on the cross, if the Jews could be
exterminated today (as Islam requires Muslims to do), there could be no Second
Coming of Christ to rule over Israel on the throne of His father David in
Jerusalem, God would be proved a liar because of His many promises to preserve
Israel, and Satan would have won this world as his own. Israel
Satanic hatred of Jews did not end with Hitler but is growing in intensity, not only in the Muslim world but also in
Europe and in and elsewhere today. However, nowhere is
anti-Semitism more clearly and vehemently manifest than in Islam. Every child
in the Palestinian Authority's schools reads the textbook, Our Country America . Its title page declares, 'There is no
alternative to destroying Palestine !' Israel
Muhammad said, 'The last day will not come until the Muslims confront the Jews, and the Muslims destroy them. In that day Allah will give a voice to the rocks and the trees and they will cry out, 'Muslim, there is a Jew hiding behind me, come and kill him!' No clearer declaration of Satan's passion could be made. Here we see the true face of Islam, the religion of 'peace'!
Immediately after signing the
Accords in 1993, Arafat began to tell
Muslim audiences around the world not to accuse him of betraying their sacred
cause by making real peace with Oslo , but to realize that he was following the
example of their prophet, Muhammad. Otherwise, he would have suffered the same
fate as Egyptian president Anwar Sadat who visited Israel , signed a peace treaty with Jerusalem , and for that betrayal of Islam was
assassinated by the Muslim Brotherhood. Israel
In A.D. 628, Muhammad had signed, with the Quraish of
, a 10-year ceasefire known as the Treaty
of Hudaybiyah. Such a hudna is a pretense entered into when Islamic forces are
not strong enough to engage the enemy - and exists only to gain a strategic
advantage for destroying the enemy. This is the law of war and peace in Islam,
which no Muslim leader can abrogate. Mecca
Muhammad declared, 'Allah has commanded me to fight against all people until all acknowledge there is no god but Allah and Muhammad is his messenger. ' The entire world is divided into Dar al-Islam (the house of peace) and Dar al-Harb (the house of war) and there is a perpetual Jihad until all mankind are in submission to Islam and Allah. No Muslim leader has the authority to bring an end to the Jihad (holy war) between Islam and the rest of the world. Thus, when Arafat and other Arab leaders speak of 'peace,' they actually mean a hudna.
President Jimmy Carter persuaded
to 'give back' the Sinai (though it never
belonged to Israel ) and brought Sadat and Israeli Prime
Minister Menachem Begin together at the White House to sign a peace treaty
between their two countries. Carter, an ecumenist for whom the Book of Mormon
or Qur'an is a valid as the Bible, wanted to quote one verse each from the
Bible and Qur'an. There are more than 400 such references in the Bible, but
Carter's speechwriters searched long and hard in order to find in the Qur'an
(which has more than 100 verses about fighting and killing to take over the
world for Allah) one verse about 'peace.' They finally found it: Surah 8:61. Egypt
Each of the 114 Surahs (chapters) has a heading. The title of Surah 8 is 'Spoils of War.' The chapter is about fighting, slaughter, and plunder in the cause of Islam: 'Fight them until... all religion is for Allah... O Prophet! Exhort the believers to fight... It is not for any prophet to have captives until he hath made slaughter in the land' (, 65, 67), etc. With great enthusiasm , Carter quoted the lone 'peace' verse in the Qur'an, 'But if the enemy incline towards peace [i.e., surrenders], do thou also incline towards peace' (8:61).
Each of the 114 Surahs (chapters) has a heading. The title of Surah 8 is 'Spoils of War.' The chapter is about fighting, slaughter, and plunder in the cause if Oslam: 'Fight them until ... all religion is for Allah ... O Prophet! Exhort the believers to fight ... It is not for any prophet to have captives until he hath made slaughter in the land' (, 65, 67), etc. With great enthusiasm, Carter quoted the lone 'peace' verse in the Qur'an, 'But if the enemy incline towards peace [i.e., surrenders], do thou also incline towards peace' (8:61). He should have known that the Muslim has an entirely different idea of 'peace' from the rest of the world. As Arafat has bluntly said, 'Peace for us is the destruction of
What naiveté could cause Carter to imagine 'peace' between Islam and
? He surely knew of the literally hundreds
of pronouncements of destruction upon Israel both in the Qur'an itself and by Muslim
leaders. Over BBC radio, May 15, 1948, the day after Israel declared its
independence, Azzam Pasha, Secretary-General of the Arab League, had declared,
'This will be a war of extermination and momentous massacre which will be
spoken of like the Mongolian massacres...' Israel May 20, 1967, Hafez Assad (at the time Syrian Defense
Minister) declared, 'The Syrian Army with its finger on the trigger is
united.... The time has come to enter into a battle of annihilation.' A week
later, President Nasser of thundered, 'Our basic objective will be
the destruction of Egypt ... We will not accept any coexistence with
Israel .' On May 30, he announced, 'The armies of
Egypt, Jordan, Syria and Lebanon are poised on the borders of Israel... while
standing behind us are the armies of Iraq, Algeria, Kuwait, Sudan and the whole
Arab nation... the critical hour has arrived.' Israel 's president thundered, 'The existence of Iraq is an error which must be rectified...
Our goal is clear - to wipe Israel off the map!' Israel
Yet the United Nations, European Union, and the Western leaders persist in pressuring Israel to make 'peace' with an enemy that has sworn to destroy her. A few days after Yasser Arafat's June 8, 2001 'cease-fire' declaration, Sheikh Ibrahim Mahdi declared on Palestinian TV, 'Allah willing, this unjust state [of] Israel will be erased... the United States will be erased ... Britain will be erased... Blessings to whoever waged jihad for the sake of Allah. Blessings to whoever put a belt of explosive on his body or his son's and plunged into the midst of the Jews!'
In spite of such public declarations, which could be cited by the hundreds, the UN (a veritable center for anti-Semitism and anti-Israel propaganda and action) continues to rebuke
for defending itself and opposing
'peace.' Of its members, 21 are Arab nations and 52 Islamic. Israel is not
allowed to be a member of UN Commissions, such as The Commission on Human
Rights (which always includes terrorist and oppressive governments that deny
basic rights to their citizens), etc. Of the UN's 189 members, 188 (including
every terrorist member) may take their rotation terms on the Security Council.
One nation, Israel , is not allowed to do so, in spite of the
fact that it has been a UN member for over 50 years and is the only democracy
in the Israel Middle
The latest proposal to end the dispute over
and the Promised Land is called the 'Road
Map to Peace.' It was first proposed by U.S. President Bush in his Jerusalem June
speech and endorsed by Russian President Putin, the United Nations and European
Union. The so-called road to peace, so long in process, and paved with one Arab
betrayal after another, would be a joke had it not cost so many lives. Hope is
always renewed by another dream, only to be shattered as must be the case when
dealing with Islam.
Arafat has never kept one provision of any agreement. Anything he signs is not worth the ink in his signature. In the 10 years before the
Accords, about 200 Israelis were murdered
by terrorists; in the 10 years since, more than 1,200 have been killed and some
5,000 wounded. The road map calls for an end to terrorism, and the
establishment of an independent 'Palestinian' state with recognition of Oslo 's right to exist, something to which no
Muslim can agree without denouncing Islam. The real stickler is Israel , for which the road map offers no
solution. No matter what the plan, the world is defying the God of Jerusalem and will be judged accordingly. Israel
God said, 'The land shall not be sold for ever, for the land is mine' (Leviticus 25:23). But in exchange for 'peace' with an enemy that has sworn its extermination,
is continually forced by Western powers
to give away ever more of God's land, which He promised to her alone. Israel 's actions have not been perfect - and in
unbelief she has been willing to give up God's land in exchange for men's
As a people worldwide, the Jews have forsaken God and have been under His judgment. Nevertheless, Scripture says of
, 'he who touches you, touches the apple
of His [God's] eye' (Zech 2:8). Israel
It is astonishing that anyone would dare to defy the Creator of the Universe, but this is what those who interfere with His plans for
have done. Even Christians are rejecting
the hundreds of promises God has made to Israel and are trying to apply them to the
church. We dare not tamper with God's Word! Israel
God warns the world: 'I will gather all the nations... to the
, then I will enter into judgment with
them there on behalf of My people and My inheritance, valley of Jehoshaphat ... [for] they have ... divided up My
land' (Joel 3:2). The whole basis of the road map (and every other 'peace' plan
proposed) is to take from Israel the land God gave her. Bush, Putin, the
UN and EU ought to tremble! And Christians ought to pray." Israel
[Martin Gilbert, Exile and Return, The Struggle for a Jewish Homeland, J. B. Lippincott Co, Phila & NY, 1978, pp. 3-12]:
"The Jews were living in
Canaan three thousand years ago. They were first
parted from their land in 722 BC with the Assyrian conquest of the northern
Jewish , and the deportation of thousands of
Israelites eastwards to kingdom of Samaria Mesopotamia....
Less than 150 years later the Babylonians conquered the southern Jewish
, together with its capital, kingdom of Judea . The Jerusalem , the holiest site of Judaism, was
destroyed, and the Jews were once more taken eastwards, as slaves and captives.
to the river Temple of Solomon Euphrates....
From that moment, Jewish existence was threatened in every decade, both for those who continued to live in the
, and for those in exile who sought a
secure haven in the ever-increasing circles of dispersion..... Land of Israel
From the towns and villages of these first dispersions, the Jews traveled throughout the known world. From the Land of Israel, too, they ventured in search of a livelihood to all the ports and market towns of the civilized world, first to those of Egypt and of the Persian Empire, then to Alexander's Macedonian domains, then to the scattered City States of ancient Greece, and to the maritime emporia of ancient Carthage....
itself, the Jerusalem had been rebuilt by a growing Jewish
In 40 AD the Jewish philosopher, Philo of
, noted: 'Countless multitudes from
countless cities come to the Alexandria at every festival, some by land, and
others by sea, from east and west and north and south.' Twenty-six years later
the Jewish historian Josephus recorded that, when the Roman Governor of Syria
entered the town of Lydda, he had found it deserted, 'for the whole multitude
were gone up to Jerusalem for the feast of the Tabernacles'.... Temple
Following the eclipse of
, Egypt and Greece , the Syrian armies conquered the Carthage , but in 168 BC were driven out by a
Jewish revolt led by Land of Israel Maccabee, and for a hundred years the
Jews were again independent. But in 63 BC their land was conquered again, this
time by Roman troops, and the Jewish homeland was once again ruled by
Despite the military power of
, Jewish independence was not easily
destroyed. In 66 AD the Jews of Rome Judea rose in revolt, holding out in several
towns and fortresses for more than four years. But, the power of was formidable, and in 70 AD the Rome was destroyed. Three years later, in 73
AD the defenders of the fortress of Massada, the last stronghold to hold out,
chose suicide rather than surrender.... Temple
The Roman vengeance was indeed terrible. Tens of thousands of Jews were killed, many villages razed to the ground, and thousands of Jews sold into slavery, some even pitted against wild animals in the arena, as 'sport' for their captors. The destruction of the
was to remain a traumatic memory for
succeeding generations of Jews, who looked back on it with fear and
In 115 AD it was the Jews of the Diaspora who rose in revolt... the Jews of Judea also took part in it... within two years it had been crushed.... in 132 AD the Jews of Judea, Samaria and the Galilee rose in revolt once more.... the suppression of [this] revolt was completed by 135 AD.... The Romans even changed the name of
Judea, hoping to eliminate all Jewish memories
and links: henceforth it was known as Palaestina: thus ' Syria ' came into being. Palestine
By 150 AD, despite the ferocity of Roman persecution, the Jews were living scattered, but with their faith intact, in a vast region stretching from the Straits of Gibraltar to the borders of India; from the Black Sea to the Red Sea; from the river Loire to the river Indus. Those who were allowed by the Romans to remain in the Land of Israel, although refused entry to Jerusalem, set up communities both in the coastal plain and in the Galilee; at Jabneh, on the coastal plain south of Jaffa, scholars and rabbis gathered after the fall of Jerusalem, and for nearly a century Jabneh remained a centre of rabbinical scholarship.
Numbering at least three millions, the Jews of the
Roman Empire constituted more than 5 per cent of the
Empire's population, and followed a wide variety of occupations...
itself, the archaeological evidence from
biblical times shows much rebuilding of synagogues, at Bet Alfa in the Jezreel
valley, at Hammat-Gader in the shadow of the Palestine Golan heights, at in the Jericho valley, and on the Jordan Mediterranean at both Ashkelon and . Gaza
With the sudden and whirlwind conquest by Islam in the seventh and eight centuries, those Jews who lived in a wide arc of lands from
to Spain found once more a new master. In places
the Jews welcomed Muslim rule. Having been cruelly persecuted by the
Christians, both the Jews of Caesarea, in Palestine, and the Jews of Toledo in
Spain, opened the gates of their cities to the Muslim invader. India
With the Arab conquest of
between 636 and 641 AD, the Jews of Palestine recovered from the hardships imposed by
Byzantine rule, and were active as weavers, growers of cereal, and fishermen.
Not only were there active Jewish communities in the Galilee, at Jerusalem, in
the Jordan valley on both sides of the river, and in the Gulf of Elath on the
Red Sea; but many Jews returned to Palestine from other lands under Muslim
Within the Muslim world, at certain times, the Jews found positions of authority, and the chance of prosperity....
Yet even under Islam, the scale of tolerance could quickly turn, and with grim results. To the Muslim, the Jew was always a 'Dhimmi', or second-class citizen, and anti-Jewish violence could have terrible results, particularly when one of the more fanatical Muslim sects was in the ascendant....
Even under more tolerant Muslim rule, the Jews in every town and village of the Muslim world, including
, had to take second place under the
Muslims. Yet in many such towns their ancestors had been living there for many
centuries before Islam's conquests... Palestine
The religious bigotry of the eleventh century expressed itself in violence and slaughter. Within the course of a few years it left thousands of Jews dead, and drove thousands more eastwards...
Uprooted by Crusader persecutions, the Jews of Ashkenazi [Jews of
] traveled from town to town, first
eastwards, some westwards again, some to the Baltic, some to the Germany Danube.... The map of Europe was criss-crossed by the expulsion of
Jews from country after country: from the Crimea in the eleventh century, from in the twelfth, from Silesia in the thirteenth, from England and France in the fourteenth, from Hungary , Bavaris, Austria Saxony and in the fifteenth.... Lithuania
Throughout the Middle Ages the homeless wandering Jew was a feature of Christian Europe....
The Crusader conquests in the eastern
Mediterranean posed a grave threat to the Jews of that
whole area. Reaching Beirut, the Crusaders showed what would be the fate of the
Jews of Palestine when all thirty-five Jewish families living in the city were
massacred.... thousands of Jews were murdered in the Galilee, on the coastal
plain, in Samaria, and Judea... Many of those who were not murdered were either
sold into slavery in Europe, or ransomed to the Jewish community in ... Egypt
From 1099 to 1187 the Crusaders were sovereign in
. They drove the Jews from the Jewish
quarter of the city, and brought in Christian Arab tribes from east of the
river Jerusalem to settle in the Jewish homes and
alleyways which they had so brutally cleared out.... Jordan
After [that] a further tragedy, the Tartar invasion from central
Asia, in which thousands of Jews and
Christians had been murdered , and devastated once more.... Jerusalem
[Ibid., pp. 13-25]:
During the thirteenth century the Jews were ferociously persecuted in
and Morocco .... In the fourteenth century they were
likewise persecuted throughout Christian Europe, where they were blamed,
totally without cause, for the spread of the Black Death [Bubonic plague]..... Tunisia
Following the Black Death riots, even more Jews fled eastwards [
, Poland , Lithuania Eastern Europe], joining those who had fled across the Oder at the time of the Crusader massacres
three hundred years before...
To the west, another tragedy was looming. For the Jews of
and Spain , the mild rule of Islam had been replaced
by the harsh rule of Christian kings... In 1355 more than 12,000 Jews were
massacred by the mob in Portugal ... As the anti-Jewish violence spread
throughout Toledo , 50,000 Jews were massacred on the Spain alone, and 1391 was remembered as 'the year
of persecutions and oppression'.... an ominous hint of what was to come: the
complete expulsion of the Jews from island of Majorca and Portugal ... More than 160,000 Jews were forced to
leave Spain and Portugal altogether.... the largest single group, 90,000 in
all, went to the thriving cities and towns of the Ottoman Empire: to Algiers,
to Alexandria, to Damascus, to Smyrna, to Salonica, to Constantinople, and to
the urban and rural centers of Palestine. Many of those who went to Spain settled in the Palestine Galilee...
The Jews of
who reached Spain found there a small but vigorous Jewish
community, which had maintained itself, despite many difficulties, since the
defeat of the Crusaders and the Muslim recon quest.... It was under the
tolerant rule of the Mamluk sultans of Palestine that the return of the Jews had gathered
The fifteenth century had seen no diminution of the Jewish presence in
. Jews continued to return... But Muslim
rule had become harsh and intolerant... Palestine
For Christian Europe, the sixteenth century was one of religious ferment, with the 'theses' of Martin Luther setting the course for the Protestant reformation. In 1543 Luther published a pamphlet entitled Of the Jews and Their Lies. Its tone gives a clear flavor of the anti-Semitic literature that circulate din Christian religious circles at that time. [Luther's pamphlet goes on to tell others to burn synagogues, destroy the homes of Jews, force them to do manual/ menial labor etc., etc.]
Less than twenty years after Luther's anti-Jewish diatribe, a Turkish Sultan, Suleiman I, made it possible for a large number of Jews to return to the Holy Land, under the benevolent Muslim rule of the Ottomans. In 1561 Suleiman gave Tiberius, one of the four Jewish holy cities, to a former 'secret' Jew from
, Don Joseph Nassi, who rebuilt the city
and the villages around it. Jews from Italy, and from elsewhere in the
Mediterranean area, came to settle there... When, a hundred years later, the
city fell into ruins, many Jews remained in the nearby villages of the Portugal Galilee, farming, fishing and trading. Elsewhere
in the Holy
the sixteenth century, the tolerance of Turkish rule enabled several Jewish
communities to maintain their cultural and spiritual unity: in , in Jerusalem , and in Hebron , Jewish life was also upheld with vigor. Gaza
Ottoman rule gave the Jews a chance of a relatively unmolested existence throughout the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries....
Throughout the seventeenth century also, one Christian power enabled the Jews to flourish, trade and live at peace with their neighbors; this was
.... But, as happened so often in the
history of the Jewish dispersal, no golden age in one part of the world seemed
possible without a black age elsewhere. In 1648, while the Jews of Holland were
at their most successful and most peaceful, the Jews of Poland, Lithuania,
White Russia and the Ukraine - those who had found safety there more than three
hundred years before from the Christian persecutions of Germany and Central
Europe - were assailed by a violence and a hatred without parallel since Roman
times.... [Many] found safety by distant flight, to Holland , to the Balkans, and even back to the Holland from which their forebears had fled only
a few centuries before... Germany
Hassidism was a religious movement that appealed to the Jewish masses. It embodied a belief in the need to rejoice in religion, and to do so with song and dance, with zeal and study....
Love of the Land of Israel played a major part in the Hassidic philosophy, so much so that in 1777 a group of several hundred Hassid's, old and young, set off from Russia for Palestine, then under Turkish rule.... The Hassid's settled in the
Galilee, joining the thriving Jewish community of those whose ancestors
had come from and Spain more than 250 years before.... Portugal
[Ibid., pp. 26-34 ]:
"It was therefore the Jews of
, protected for more than 350 years by the
Ottoman Turks, should have shown loyalty to their Ottoman rulers during the Greek
revolt of 1821. Their loyalty certainly cost them a great deal.... Jews were
murdered [by Greeks] with savage zeal... Greece
Even under Muslim rule, the Jewish condition worsened as the nineteenth century progressed. In the Persian town of
, in March 1839, a fanatical Muslim mob,
incited by a false rumor, burst in to the century-old Jewish quarter, burned
the synagogue and destroyed the scrolls of the Law. A massacre seemed imminent,
and was only averted by the revival of one of the curses of medieval society,
the forcible conversion of the whole Jewish community to Islam.... In secret,
they managed to preserve their Judaism.... Slowly, small groups of 'secret'
Jews from Meshed migrated to central Meshed Asia, to , to India , and to Britain .... Palestine
Throughout the 1860s the Jews of
were subjected to punitive taxation. In
1864, in the Moroccan cities of Libya and Marrakesh , as many as five hundred Jews were killed
by the Muslim mob, and a further eighteen were killed in Fez in 1869. These torments drove the Jews of
Arab lands to seek havens elsewhere. Some chose Tunis , and the more benevolent rule of the
Turkish Sultan... Palestine
A British Jew, Moses Montefiore... had come to devote his life to the cause of his persecuted fellow-Jews wherever they might be. On
a grandson of the Duke of Marlborough, Colonel Charles Churchill, wrote to
Montefiore that, in his view, the Jews ought to promote the regeneration of and the eastern Mediterranean region.
Were they to do so, they would, Churchill believed, 'end by obtaining the
sovereignty of at least Palestine .' Palestine
Charles Churchill felt strongly that the Jews should resume what he described to Montefiore as their 'existence as a people'. Four years after his letter, in 1845, a fellow Englishman, George Gawler, published a pamphlet urging the establishment of Jewish colonies in
The efforts of Sir Moses Montefiore to encourage Jewish villages in Palestine were rewarded with success in 1856, when he received an edict from the Sultan allowing the Jews to buy land there....
In 1819... a virulent outbreak of mob violence, the 'Heb! Heb!' riots, had shown the depth of popular German anti-Semitism. Throughout
, Jews were made the scapegoats for the
economic distress that had followed in the wake of the Napoleonic wars.... Germany
The cry of 'Heb! Heb!' was heard again in Germany eleven years later, during the 1830 revolution, with the result that tens of thousands of German Jews decided to seek a new life from fear, in the distant United States...
As the Jews succeeded in more and more professions, German anti-Semitism grew....
In May 1867... the Rumanians had turned [against Jews] with savage persecution....
After 1880... [there was] ill-treatment of Russian Jews...
[Ibid., pp. 35-43]:
"Emancipation brought to European Jewry, for the first time in more than a thousand years, the myriad opportunities of equal rights and full citizenship. It made the Jew feel less of an alien, encouraging his participation, and even his assimilation, into the societies of the west. Many Jewish families abandoned their Jewish identity entirely and, by intermarriage, brought their Jewish heritage to an end. No such temptation presented itself to the vast mass of Russian Jewry. For them, each decade of the nineteenth century brought further hardship, conjuring up the image of past troubles rather than the hope of any future easement.
With the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, more than five million Jews had found themselves within the newly enlarged frontiers of Tsarist
, and their numbers grew rapidly. Yet year
by year their legal and economic situation had worsened.... Russia
In 1845 Tsar Nicholas conceived the idea of diving the Jews into two categories, the 'useful' and the 'non-useful'. In the 'useful' category were to be wealthy merchants, craftsmen and farmers, whose rights would be respected. The 'non-useful' would include the small tradesmen, the poor, the peddlers and the unemployed, on whom military service would be imposed....
In March 1881 Tsar Alexander II was assassinated by socialist revolutionaries, who called on the people of
to overthrow the Tsarist regime. The
Government struggled to maintain law and order. Quickly, the Jews were singled
out as a scapegoat..... by the end of 1881 more than two hundred Jewish
communities had suffered..... In the wake of these persecutions, small groups
of Russian Jews gathered together to discuss what was to be done. Some argued
in favor of emigration to the Russia .... Others argued in favor of Jewish
settlement in United States of America . This latter possibility was also much
discussed by the quarter of a million Jews of Palestine , whose persecution had continued.... It
was finally decided [by the representatives of thirty-two local Rumanian
groups] that as a first step, a hundred families should leave for Rumania in the following year. Thus was born the
first positive action of what was to become a great movement of Jews from both Palestine and Rumania [to Russia ]... Palestine
By the end of 1882 Lovers of
groups had sprung up all over southern Zion and Russia , determined to join, or to support,
further groups of would-be settlers in the Rumania .... Land of Israel
In 1882 [Leon] Pinsker... wrote his book, Auto-Emancipation, in which he argued that anti-Semitism was inevitable wherever the Jews were a minority; that they could only be a majority if they had a homeland of their own.... The impact of Pinsker's book was immediate.... The Russian-born writer and journalist, Nahum Sokolov, put forward specific proposals for industrial development in
. A British Jew, Zerah Barnett... help
found the Mea Sheareim quarter outside the walls of Palestine .. and the Jewish Jerusalem .... The Kattowitz Conference allocated
money for two projects already existing in village of Petah Tikvah ... Baron Palestine de Rothschild... had been drawn actively
into the task of giving financial help to all the struggling settlements in Edmond ... Palestine
By 1890, the number of Russian-born Jews who had settled in
reached 50,000. In Palestine alone the Jews numbered more than 25,000,
out of a total population in the city of only 40,000. The Arabs, a majority in
the sparsely populated countryside, watched with alarm this influx of newcomers
from Russia, and on 24 June 1891 the leading Muslims of Jerusalem telegraphed
to the Turkish authorities in Constantinople 'praying they the entry of such
Jews should be prohibited, as, not only was the labor marked over-stocked, but
also the Muslims themselves would be greatly the sufferers, as, the European
Jews being skilled in all different kinds of trades, the Muslims could not
compete against them.' Jerusalem
As a result of this protest all Jewish immigration was forbidden by the Turks in July 1891, but, after a short while, the ban was not enforced."
[Ibid., pp. 44-51]:
"Between 1881 and 1914 more than two million Russian Jews left
in search of a secure home, an unmolested
daily life, and the chance of education and self-advancement. More than half a
million of these refugees went to Russia , Britain and western Europe. Eighty thousand went
to France . But the vast mass, more than two
million, crossed the Atlantic to the Argentine, to Canada, and to what they
called in Yiddish, the goldene medina - the 'golden realm' - the
United States... Palestine
In western Europe there was an equally remarkable flowering of the Jewish genius in the years before the First World War, when Jewish self-help, Jewish community organization, and Jewish participation in national, political, cultural and scientific life reached new dimensions of activity and success....
[In Russian on the other hand, there were official 'pogroms' and secret groups of individuals dedicated to limiting Jewish success, even fostering anti-Semitism, in spite of increasing emigration - these efforts broke out in violence and death for many Jews in 1905. Hence the conclusion of Zionists was constantly reinforced throughout the world: Jews needed a homeland they could call their own]
BE THE ONLY ULTIMATE GOAL JERUSALEM
[Ibid., pp. 66-76]
"During 1906 there were yet more pogroms in Russian, for the fifth consecutive year....
In the same 10 years, more than a million Jews reached the
from United States alone. Yet despite the continuing appeal
of the United States, the materially more difficult choice, Palestine, still
excited those for whom it was not simply a question of somewhere to go, but of
a return to the historic home of the Jewish people... In Russia the Jewish population had reached 40,000
by 1905, and constituted more than two-thirds of the city's total
In February 1908 the eighteen year old Adolph Hitler arrived in
from provincial Vienna . For five years Hitler observed the Jews
of the city with a growing hatred which he was later to describe in his
book Mein Kampf. Hitler's hatred soon turned towards the 175,000
Jews of Austria ... While Hitler was nurturing his anti-Semitic
fantasies in Vienna , the Jews themselves were continuing to
seek, in Vienna , a new life and new opportunities denied
them in so many other lands..." Palestine
[Ibid., pp. 79-91]:
"With the outbreak of war in
Europe in August 1914, the five million Jews of
Tsarist fond themselves 'allied' to the more
liberal governments of Russia and Britain ... It was another Russian-born Jew, the
electrical engineer Pinhas Rutenberg, who, early in September 1914, believing
that France would be victorious. was convinced that,
if a Jewish force could be raised to fight with the allied armies, there would
be a better chance of the Jews being given a choice at the post-war Peace
Conference, and might lead to the restoration of a Jewish State in
The British conquest of Turkey [was] an opportunity for the partition of the Ottoman Empire.... in which [was] pressed for some form of British protectorate over Palestine, in the interest of future Jewish settlement....
IX) THE EVOLUTION OF THE BALFOUR DECLARATION
[Ibid., pp. 92-108]:
"The anguish of the Jews when confronted by Christian or Muslim persecution; their own efforts to rebuild and revitalize Jewish life in Palestine; and their realization that a British victory over the Turks could lead to a British sponsored Jewish commonwealth in Palestine, produced, during 1917, the conditions needed to advance the Zionist cause. For Jews all over the world, the prospect of British troops entering
brought with it the chance of the first
Jewish self-government since before Roman times.... Jerusalem
On March 21 the War Cabinet [of
] discussed the coming British military
advance into Britain . Both [Prime Minister] Lloyd George and
[Lord] Balfour raised, sympathetically, the question of Zionist aims... It was
now widely known that one result of a British victory [over the Turks in Palestine ] would be the furthering of Zionist
policies... While Jews and Zionists in both Palestine and Russia were helping the Allied cause, in Britain , itself, the Jewish population was
increasingly the victim of Turkish persecution.... Palestine
The Russian revolution of March 1917, with its call for liberty, 'far from weakening Jewish nationalism, did but deepen and intensify the national aspirations.'...
The official War Cabinet minutes recorded Balfour's words as follows:
'The Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs stated that he gathered that everyone was now agreed that, from a purely diplomatic and political point of view, it was desirable that some declaration favorable to the aspirations of the Jewish nationalists should now be made. The vast majority of Jews in
and Russia , as, indeed, all over the world, now
appeared to be favorable to Zionism. If we could make a declaration favorable
to such an ideal, we should be able to carry on extremely useful propaganda
both in America and Russia . America
He gathered that the main arguments still put forward against Zionism were twofold:
was inadequate to form a home for either
the Jewish or any other people. Palestine
(b) The difficulty felt with regard to the future position of Jews in Western countries.'
Balfour's exposition continued:
'With regard to the first, he understood that there were considerable differences of opinion among experts regarding the possibility of the settlement of any large population in Palestine, but he was informed that, if Palestine were scientifically developed, a very much larger population could be sustained than had existed during the period of Turkish misrule.
As to the meaning of the words' national home', to which the Zionists attach so much importance, he understood it to mean some form of British, American, or other protectorate, under which full facilities would be given to the Jews to work out their own salvation and to build up, by means of education, agriculture, and industry, a real centre of national culture and focus of national life. It did not necessarily involve the early establishment of an independent Jewish State, which was a matter for gradual development in accordance with the ordinary laws of political evolution.'
The War Cabinet's acceptance of what was to become known as the 'Balfour Declaration', made it clear that two pressing and potentially conflicting interests were now in harmony: the long-term needs and aspirations of Zionism, and the immediate, harsh dictates of war.
[Ibid., pp. 109-118]:
"The Balfour Declaration achieved one of the main aims of the Zionists: the return of the Jews to
had been recognized as a legitimate
aspiration for world Jewry. But one imponderable condition remained: the
Balfour Declaration, although approved by the Palestine , United States and France , had been granted by Italy alone, and it would depend on Britain as to how it would be implemented. The
Jews did not become masters of their own destiny in Britain on Palestine 2 November
destiny still depended upon British rules and interpretations. It needed, also,
further immigration, land purchase, investment, agricultural and industrial
development, dedication, fair-dealing and the continual thrust of faith in the
Jewish future, and idealism....
Yet on November 6, the day of the fall of
.... all Lord Harding's hopes for the
'skillful management' of the Jews of Gaza were dashed by events in Russia itself: that evening the Bolshevik
leader, Vladimir Ilich Lenin, entered the capital, and within forty-eight hours
the Provisional Government had been overthrown. By nightfall on November 8 the
new Bolshevik regime had destroyed the Russian war-effort by declaring an
immediate end to the war. At the same time, by handing over the estates to the
peasants, they ensured that hundreds of thousands of peasants would at once
leave the army units for their promised farms, thus effectively demobilizing
what was left of the Russian fighting forces. Russia
Lenin's anti-war declaration destroyed the immediate aim of the Balfour Declaration [in
]... In the confusion of war, news of the
Balfour Declaration did not reach Russia Petrograd until November 29....
British support for 'a national home for the Jewish people' in
depended, in the first instance, upon
driving the Turks out of Palestine . A further, major step forward towards
this took place on December 9, when General Allenby's forces received the
surrender of Palestine ... Jerusalem
Scarcely two months after the Balfour Declaration was issued, the question began to be discussed in
as to how the existing Arab majority in London could be reconciled to any special privileges
that might be given to the Jews. While the Balfour Declaration envisaged at
least the possibility of an eventual Jewish majority, it was clear that it
would be many years before such a majority would exist..... Palestine
Arab unease arose largely due to a misunderstanding of Zionist aims and intentions.... [for example] ... the Arab belief that Zionism 'involved the expropriation of Arab proprietors and the handing over to future Jewish tutelage of Christian and Moslem sites'. Both these objections, [it was] pointed out, 'had been clearly and emphatically disavowed by the responsible leaders of Zionism.'...
At its meeting on January 19, the Middle East Committee decided to sent out to Palestine a Zionist Commission, led by Weitzman, to help 'in establishing friendly relations between the Jews on the one hand, and the Arabs and other non-Jewish communities on the other'....
Not only did the Zionist Commission carry out its work in respect of future Jewish developments in Palestine; Weitzman also made a strenuous effort to reach agreement with Emir Feisal, a son of King Hussein, and commander of the Arab forces which were about to declare themselves at war with the Turks....
On October 30... the Turks surrendered to the Allies. Palestine was firmly under British military control, less than a year after the issue of the Balfour Declaration....
A) THE WEIZMANN-FEISAL AGREEMENT
in December 1918, Weitzman and Feisal
continued to try to find some common ground between the Zionist and Arab
positions... This 'Weitzman-Feisal Agreement', as it came to be known, was
completed on 3 January 1919; Article Four declared that all 'necessary
measures' should be taken 'to encourage and stimulate immigration of Jews into
Palestine on a large scale, and as quickly as possible to settle Jewish
immigrants upon the land through closer settlement and intensive cultivation of
the soil'. In taking such measures, the agreement went on, 'the Arab peasant
and tenant farmers shall be protected in their rights, and shall be assisted in
forwarding their economic development.' London
Weitzman and Feisal agreed that the boundary between 'the Arab State and Palestine' would be determined by a commission agreed upon by them both; in Palestine, the Muslim Holy Places would be under Muslim control; no law would be made to interfere 'in any way with the free exercise of religion.' In addition, the Zionist Organization would use 'its best efforts' to assist the
'in providing the means for developing
the natural resources and economic possibilities thereof'.... Arab State
[It was reported by Weitzman that] 'The Zionist Organization did not want an autonomous Jewish Government, but merely to establish in Palestine, under a Mandatory Power, and administration, not necessarily Jewish, which would render it possible to send into Palestine 70,000 to 80,000 Jews annually. The Organization would require to have permission at the same time to build Jewish schools, where Hebrew would be taught, and to develop institutions of every kind. Thus it would build up gradually a nationality....
How did the Arab delegation at
react to these submissions? Three weeks
earlier, on February 6, the head of the Arab delegation, the Emir Feisal
himself, has already told the Supreme Council that because of Paris 's 'universal character', he accepted that
it should be 'left on one side for the consideration of all countries
interested'. On March 1 he expressed himself clearly and firmly in favor of the
Zionist position, in a long letter to one of the American Zionist leaders,
Felix Frankfurter. 'We Arabs,' Feisal wrote, 'especially the educated among us,
look with deepest sympathy on the Zionist movement.' Feisal's letter continued: Palestine
'Our deputation here in
is fully acquainted with the proposals
submitted yesterday by the Zionist Organization to the Peace Conference, and we
regard them as moderate and proper. We will do our best, in so far as we are
concerned, to help them through: we will wish the Jews a most hearty welcome
With the chiefs of your movement, specially with Dr Weitzman, we have had and continue to have the closest relations. He has been a great helper of our cause, and I hope the Arabs may soon be in a position to make the Jews some return for their kindness. We are working together for a reformed and revived Near East, and our two movements complete one another. The Jewish movement is national and not imperialist. Our movement is national and not imperialist, and there is room in
for us both. Indeed I think that neither
can be a real success without the other..... Syria
Neither Feisal's letter to Frankfurter, nor the earlier agreement between Weitzman and Feisal, could provide a guarantee of future Jewish-Arab amity: indeed, in a handwritten note which he added to the agreement itself, Feisal had stressed that he would only 'carry out what is written in this agreement' on condition that 'the Arabs obtain their independence' in Syria. By July 1920 the French had deposed Feisal from the throne of
; two years later, however, with British
support, Feisal did become king of an Arab state, Syria , which gained complete independence in
[Ibid., pp. 119-134]:
"For the thirty years beginning in 1918, the status of the Jews already in
, and the future of those who wished to go
there, was dependent upon British policy. Although a Jewish 'National Home' had
come into existence in 1918, or was at least promised, the Jews themselves had
to rely upon British goodwill, and British-controlled legislation, to secure or
strengthen their legal and physical position there. Palestine
There was certainly no unanimity of pro-Zionist feeling among the British policy-makers during 1919 and 1920; sometimes the attitude was much more that of actual hostility....
On 2 July 1919 the Syrian General Congress, meeting in Damascus, challenged the Emir Feisal's acceptance of Zionism, and, in a strongly worded memorandum, demanded the union of Palestine with Syria, and an immediate end to all Jewish immigration...
The British Government, however, felt itself firmly committed to a pro-Zionist policy. On June 19 General Clayton had telegraphed to the Foreign Office from
for approval of a Cairo ordinance to re-open land purchase 'under
official control'. Balfour... replied... that land purchase could indeed be
continued 'provided that, as far as possible, preferential treatment is given
to Zionists interests'.... Palestine
The anti-Zionist group [in
] spanned both political parties.... Britain
On August 1919 an American Commission of Enquiry, known as the King-Crane Commission... criticized Zionist ambitions, and recommended what it called 'serious modification of the extremist Zionist program for Palestine of unlimited immigration of Jews, looking finally to making Palestine distinctly a Jewish State'...
During 1919, anti-Semitism became more widespread, and was not confined to Russians or eastern Europeans.... On October 16... a public event took place in a Munich beer cellar... a speech by Adolph Hitler, then aged thirty... his denunciations of the Jews held his audience spellbound for half an hour....
Evidence of the Jewish role in Bolshevik
created, throughout 1919 and 1920, a
hostile attitude towards the Jews... Russia
By the end of 1919, more than 100,000 Jews had been murdered in the
and Ukraine .... Poland
Writing in the Illustrated Sunday Herald on
February 1920, another non-Jew, the British Secretary of State for War, Winston
Churchill, encapsulated the main contemporary attitudes towards both Zionism
and the Jews. 'Some people like Jews and some do not.' he wrote, 'but no
thoughtful man can doubt the fact that they are beyond all doubt the most
formidable and the most remarkable race which has ever appeared in the
Churchill then appealed to world Jewry to abandon Bolshevism, and to turn instead to Zionism...
Zionism, Churchill believed, offered to the Jews 'a national idea of a commanding character'.
would provide 'the Jewish race all over
the world with, as he put it, 'a home and a centre of national life'... Palestine
The Prime Minister remained a staunch supporter of the Jewish people...
The year 1920 was a fateful one for the Jews, for it saw not only Lloyd George's determination to accept the Palestine Mandate for Britain, but also in Germany, the evolution of Adolph Hitler's crude anti-Semitic views from the obscurity of individual prejudice to the publicity of the popular mob....
.... Haj Amin el-Husseini, a member of one
of the leading Arab families... [had] been sentenced... to ten years imprisonment
[for incitement to violence]... fled across Palestine ... Only six months later, on Jordan 8
was appointed Mufti of , and later... President of the newly
created Supreme Moslem Council... This.. made him effective head of the Muslim
community in Jerusalem .... Henceforth, he was to be a leading
instigator of a sequence of protests, of riots, and after 1936, of murder -
against Jews, against British soldiers and civilians, and against several
hundred moderate Arabs who opposed his extreme activities... Palestine
In pursuance of his aim to see a Jewish National Home established in
, Lloyd George entrusted Winston
Churchill, who became Colonial Secretary in January 1920, to supervise the
details of the emergence of the formal Palestine League of Nations Mandate.
A) FEISAL AGREES TO ABANDON ALL CLAIMS OF HIS FATHER TO
Almost the first letter which Churchill received in his new Cabinet post was one from T. E. Lawrence, who, on 17 January 1921, reported on his discussions with the Emir Feisal, who had, Lawrence wrote, 'agreed to abandon all claims of his father to Palestine'. In return, Feisal wanted both
Mesopotamia and Transjordan to become Arab States. This was
accomplished within two years, when Feisal himself became ruler of Mesopotamia, and his brother, Abdullah, ruler of Transjordan. Mesopotamia, as Iraq, became independent
in 1932, Transjordan in 1946. As part of 's policy towards Britain Transjordan, all the Jewish National Home provisions
of the Mandate were specifically excluded from
the whole of Palestine Transjordan."
B) WINSTON CHURCHILL MAKES HIS CASE FOR A JEWISH NATIONAL HOME IN
in March 1921, where he was greeted by a
petition from the Palestine Congress of Palestinian Arabs, dated Haifa 14
'1. We refuse the Jewish Immigration to
2. We energetically protest against the Balfour Declaration to the effect that our Country should be made the Jewish National Home.'
In his reply, Churchill stated the case for the Zionists in a powerful manner. 'It is manifestly right', he told the Palestinian Arab leaders on March 28,
...that the Jews, who are scattered all over the world, should have a national centre and a National Home where some of them may be reunited. And where else could that be but in the
, with which for more for more than 3,000
years they have been intimately and profoundly associated? We think it would be
good for the world, good for the Jews, and good for the land of Palestine British Empire."
The Arab protest continued, and the violence that followed Churchill's visit was severe. Arab violence in
on May 1 led to the British High
Commissioner in Jaffa , Sir Herbert Samuel, ordering an
immediate temporary suspension of Jewish immigration. Ten days later the Senior
Naval Officer in the Eastern Mediterranean, Captain Seymour, sent to the
Admiralty his report on the riots, in which he wrote: 'Further immigration of
foreign Jews into Palestine has been prohibited as a temporary measure and this
has given satisfaction to the Arabs'. Palestine
The suspension of immigration, made on the authority of Sir Herbert Samuel, did not entirely impress the Colonial Office, and a telegram was drafted for Churchill by one of his senior advisers, Major Young, which was dispatched to Samuel on
14 May 1921. 'The present agitation', the telegram
read, 'is doubtless engineered in the hope of frightening us out of our Zionist
policy... We must firmly maintain law and order and make concessions on their
merits and not under duress.'
Although the total prohibition of Jewish immigration, which the Arabs continued to demand, was never acceptable to Churchill, the idea of some limit to Jewish immigration was discussed between Samuel and the Colonial Office, and it was decided to set up a limit based on what was described by Samuel as 'the economic absorptive capacity of Palestine'. This idea of some limit took rapid shape, and within tow years it had become government policy, to the dismay of the Zionist leaders, who saw it as an erosion of what they believed was the principle of freedom of immigration implied in the 'National Home' phraseology of the Balfour Declaration.
For good or ill, the future of Zionism was not linked to British policy and British prejudice. But it was still up to the Zionists to take the initiative, if their numbers were to grow and their efforts to flourish. On June 4 Arthur Ruppin wrote in his diary: 'It is absolutely clear to me that Zionism will perish altogether if we do not soon make a start developing
MANDATE SECURED PALESTINE
[Ibid., pp. 135-148]:
"On June 22 Churchill explained the British position on Zionism to the Dominion Prime Ministers, at a meeting of the Imperial Cabinet. Among those present were the
Prime Minister, William Massey, and the
Canadian Prime Minister, Arthur Meighen. 'The Zionist ideal', Churchill told
them, 'is a very great ideal, and I confess, for myself, it is one that claims
my keen personal sympathy.' But the Balfour Declaration, he added, was more
than an ideal. It was also an obligation, made in wartime, 'to enlist the aid
of Jews all over the world', and New Zealand must be 'very careful and punctilious',
he explained, 'to discharge our obligations....' Britain
On July 5 Dr. Weitzman, who had just returned from the
, told Colonel Meinertzhagen that he
feared for the future of Zionism. 'He says the British Government is whittling
down the Balfour Declaration,' Meinertzhagen recorded in his diary, 'that
immigration has practically stopped, that the bulk of the British Officers
in Palestine are not in sympathy with the movement and that the Zionists
are not getting those concessions which are necessary for the establishment of
the Home of the Jews in Palestine'... United States
Lloyd George and Balfour both agreed 'that by the [Balfour] Declaration they had always meant an eventual Jewish State'....
One of the principal Middle East advisers at the Colonial Office, Major Young ....himself favored a policy which, he had written to Churchill on August 1, involved 'the gradual immigration of Jews into Palestine until that country becomes a predominantly Jewish state', and he went on to argue that the phrase 'National Home' as used in the Balfour Declaration implied no less than full statehood for the Jews of Palestine....
The Cabinet decided to retain the Mandate, for, as the official minutes recorded, 'stress was laid on the following consideration, the honor of the government was involved in the Declaration made by Mr. Balfour, and to go back on our pledge would seriously reduce the prestige of this country in the eyes of the Jews throughout the world'. Nevertheless, also contained in the Cabinet's conclusion was the warning that, 'It was not expected that the problem could be easily or quickly solved, especially in view of the growing power of the Arabs in the territories bordering on Palestine.'...
Churchill told the Arabs: 'You are not addressing your minds to the real facts of the case,' and he went to say that he had no power, or desire, to repudiate the Balfour Declaration. Nor did he believe that the Jews were in any way a threat to the Arabs:
'I have told you again and again that the Jews will not be allowed to come into the country except in so far as they build up the means for their livelihood according to the law. They cannot take any man's lands. They cannot dispossess any man of his rights or his property or interfere with him in any way.
If they like to buy people's land, and people like to sell it to them, and if they like to develop and cultivate regions now barren and make them fertile, then they have the right, and we are obliged to secure their right to come into the country and to settle.'
Later in the discussion, Churchill stated unequivocally that
could not grant representative government
to Britain , because, as he said, 'we are trustees,
not only for the interests of the Arabs but also for the interests of the Jews.
We have a double duty to discharge.' The Arabs could not have representative
Government, he said, because that would given them the power to halt Jewish
immigration. The British Government, he added, 'wants to see Jews developing
and fertilizing the country and increasing the population of Palestine '. It was 'a great pity', he continued,
that there were so few people in Palestine , which had once been 'three or four
times' more populous. He wanted to see more wealth in Palestine , 'instead of it being occupied by a few
people who were not making any great use of it'. It was Palestine 's intention, Churchill declared, 'to
bring more Jews in. We do not intend you to be allowed to stop more from coming
in. You must look at the facts.'... Britain
...During his final speech, he [Churchill] declared:
'The Jews are a very numerous people, and they are scattered all over the world. This is a country where they have great historic traditions, and you cannot brush that aside as though it were absolutely nothing. They were there many hundreds of years ago. They have always tried to be there. They have done a great deal for the country. They have started many thriving colonies, and many of them wish to go and live there. It is to them a sacred place. Many of them go there to be buried in the city which they regard as sacred - as you regard it as sacred.
Why cannot you live together in amity and develop the country peacefully? There is room for all as long as they are not brought in great numbers before there are means of livelihood for them; before the electrical and other means of power are created which will make waste places fertile; before the hills have had terraces made upon them; before irrigation and proper agricultural development. Of course, if they were brought in before these things were done, you would have reason to complain....
The Jews have a far more difficult task than you. You only have to enjoy your own possession; but they have to try to create out of the wilderness, out of the barren places, a livelihood for the people they bring in. They have to bring them in under conditions which make for the general good of the population, and which supplant no one, and deprive no one of their rights and liberties....
A) THE RUTENBERG SCHEME
Before the Mandate was itself finalized, the British Government made a major contribution to the development of the Jewish National Home. This took the form of granting the Zionists a monopoly control over the development of the electrical resources of
, according to a scheme which had been
drawn up by the Russian-born Jewish engineer, Pinhas Rutenberg, to harness the
waters of Palestine . Palestine
The Rutenberg scheme was accepted by the British Government as an integral part of its Mandate commitment to the Jews....
On May 24 John Shuckburgh sent Churchill the final draft of Sir Herbert Samuel's memorandum on the future of
. In it, Samuel described as 'impracticable'
Weitzman's much quoted remark of 1919 that Palestine would become 'as Jewish as Palestine is English'. The British Government,
Samuel insisted, 'have no such aim in view'. Nor did they wish to see 'the
disappearance or the subordination of the Arab population, language or culture
in England '. Samuel also stressed that the Balfour
Declaration did not contemplate 'that Palestine as a whole should be converted into a
Jewish National Home, but that such a Home should be founded in Palestine '. Palestine
Samuel's memorandum went on to state once again that further Jewish immigration could not be permitted to exceed 'whatever may be the economic capacity of the country at any given time to absorb new arrivals'.
WHITE PAPER PALESTINE
Samuel's statement was accepted by the Colonial Office as a guideline for future British policy, and was published as part of the
White Paper of Palestine 30
The Zionists themselves formally accepted the White Paper. But they were
unhappy about fixing so specific an economic condition on future immigration,
fearing that unsympathetic, and even anti-Zionist High Commissioners in the
future, would abuse the concept of an economic absorptive capacity in order to
halt future immigration.
C) CHURCHILL'S DEFENSE AND THE HOUSE OF COMMONS OVERWHELMINGLY APPROVES OF THE
Churchill spoke in defense of the Zionists on July 4, telling the House of Commons:
'...anyone who has visited Palestine recently must have seen how parts of the desert have been converted into gardens, and how material improvement has been effected in every respect by the Arab population dwelling around. On the sides of the hills there are enormous systems of terraces, and they are now the abode of an active cultivating population; whereas before, under centuries of Turkish and Arab rule, they had relapsed into a wilderness.
There is no doubt whatever that in that country there is room for still further energy and development if capital and other forces be allowed to play their part.
There is no doubt that there is room for a far larger number of people, and this far larger number of people will be able to lead far more decent and prosperous lives.
Apart from this agricultural work - this reclamation work - there are services which science, assisted by outside capital, can render, and of all the enterprises of importance which would have the effect of greatly enriching the land none was greater than the scientific storage and regulation of the waters of the Jordan for the provision of cheap power and light needed for the industry of Palestine, as well as water for the irrigation of new lands now desolate.'
The granting of the Rutenberg concession did not involve, Churchill said, 'injustice to a single individual'; it did not take away 'one scrap of what was there before', and it offered to all the inhabitants of Palestine 'the assurance of a greater prosperity and the means of a higher economic and social life'....
Critics of the Rutenberg concession had insisted that it was for the Arab majority to develop the economic wealth of
. Churchill sought to rebut this argument: Palestine
'I am told that the Arabs would have done it themselves. Who is going to believe that? Left to themselves, the Arabs of
would not in a thousand years have taken
effective steps towards the irrigation and electrification of Palestine . They would have been quite content to
dwell - a handful of philosophic people - in the wasted sun-scorched plains,
letting the waters of the Palestine continue to flow unbridled and un-harnessed
into the Jordan Dead
The House divided at the end of Churchill's speech. His appeal was successful. Only thirty-five votes were cast against the Government's
policy, and 292 in favor. Palestine
D) THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS APPROVES THE
The success of the Rutenberg Debate effectively freed the Colonial Office from the pressure of the anti-Zionists, and left the way clear for presenting the final terms of the Mandate to the
League of Nations....
On July 22 the
League of Nations approved the Mandate. Henceforth, the anti-Zionists,
however strongly they expressed their criticisms, could not uproot the Jewish
National Home.... Palestine
"The granting of the
Mandate to Palestine provided a major stimulus to Zionist
enterprise and development. But it neither lessened Arab opposition to Zionism,
nor improved the lot of Jews elsewhere.... Britain
...Even Jewish settlement in
was subject to increasing difficulties,
both economic and political... Palestine
A) [Palestinian Arab Congress,
6 October 1924]:
'The daily slight frictions between Arab and Jew, whose ideas, principles, customs and modes of life take dramatically divergent lines cultivate and solidify hatred between both communities, and there must come a time when it will accumulate to such a degree as to defy all moral or political restraints.
It is a gross error to believe that Arab and Jew may come to an understanding if only each of them exchanges his coat of extremism for another of moderation. When the principles underlying two movements do clash, it is futile to expect their meeting halfway.'...
Both Leopold Amery - then Colonial Secretary - and Winston Churchill - then Chancellor of the Exchequer - supported the proposed Zionist loan ['for the sole purpose of promoting and expediting close settlement by Jews on the land']. But the Cabinet rejected it; and, in doing so, marked a step away from what had earlier been regarded as one of
's obligations under the National Home
provisions of the Mandate... Britain
Arab attacks on Jews spread throughout
When the attacks ended at nightfall on
Jews had been killed. Eighty-seven Arabs had also died, mostly shot by British
troops and police seeking to halt the violence....
Two weeks later, on September 29, the new [British] High Commissioner [of British troops in
], Sir John Chancellor, telegraphed to the
Colonial Office: Palestine
'...the latent deep-seated hatred of the Arabs for the Jews has now come to the surface in all parts of the country. Threats of renewed attacks upon the Jews are being freely made and are only being prevented by visible presence of considerable military force.'
That same day, September 29, the President of the Arab Executive in
, Musa Kazim Pasha, warned a senior
British official in Palestine that unless the Jewish National Home
policy was changed, 'there would be an armed uprising'. Musa Kazim Pasha added
that such an uprising would involve, not only the Arabs of Palestine but 'participation of Moslems from Palestine , Syria Transjordan and perhaps '..... Iraq
In March 1930, the Shaw Report [head of the Commission of Enquiry to examine the causes of Arab unrest] made it clear that British opinion was swinging slowly but definitely against the Zionists....
Based on [a second official report by Sir John Hope-Simpson, Oct 1930] the [British] Government issued a White Paper intimating that future Jewish immigration might have to be curtailed even more rigorously than in the past....
Following Weitzman's protests, Ramsay MacDonald agreed to abandon the immigration [limiting] clauses of the 1930 White Paper....
30 January 1933 Adolph Hitler became German Chancellor,
and anti-Semitism took on an open, official, and hysterical tone....
Hitler predicted with what he called 'absolute certainty', his name would be honored in all lands 'as the man who once and for all exterminated the Jewish pest from the world'....
The new German persecutions, combined with the continuing anti-Jewish feelings in
and Poland , did lead, however, to a great influx of
Jews into Rumania .... The Jewish population now stood at
more than 230,000, nearly 20 per cent of the total.... Palestine
[Ibid., pp. 160-177]
Immediately following the Nazi victory in
, Arab protests against Jewish immigration
to Germany were renewed.... Palestine
The Jews did not allow themselves to be intimidated or deterred, but began to augment the arms supplies which, since the riots of 1929, they had been building up for their own defense....
In the resulting violence.... the Arabs had decided to challenge both the British and the Jews.....
In 1934 a further 42,000 Jews entered
, in 1935 more than 61,000..... Two years
later the Palestine Royal Commission headed by Lord Peel
'So far from reducing economic absorptive capacity, immigration increased it. The more immigrants came in, the more work they created for local industries to meet their needs, especially in building: and more work meant more room for immigrants under the '''labor schedule'''. Unless, therefore, the Government adopted a more restrictive policy, or unless there were come economic or financial set-back, there seemed no reason why the rate of immigration should not go on climbing up and up...
The Jews were caught in a dilemma. On the one hand, fearing a repetition of the
, Safed and Motza massacres, they armed
themselves, and, anxious to build a Jewish entity, and to increase the
possibilities for Jewish immigration, they employed only Jews in the major
Zionist enterprises. On the other hand, desirous of improving relations with
the Arabs, in the autumn of 1935 they added 50 per cent to the land reserved
for Arabs in the Hulch basin: land allocated to a Jewish group by the
Administration. It was, above all, events in Hebron which dominated Jewish thinking, making Germany seem more than ever an essential focus of
Jewish hopes.... Palestine
The British government still maintained its attitude that
was not a suitable place for any
substantial additional number of Jewish refugees. But the Palestinian Arabs
made it clear that they were bitterly opposed to the idea of Palestine being
made a haven for any more European refugees whatsoever: they regarded even the
existing number as too large, pointing out that since 1933 the Jewish
population of Palestine had increased from 230,000 to 400,000, reaching by 1936
one third of the total population of Palestine. In protest against any further
Jewish immigration, the Arabs began a general strike on 15 April 1936, and on
May 7 the Arab leaders, meeting in Jerusalem, demanded an immediate end to all
Jewish immigration, a ban on any further Jewish land purchase, and an Arab
majority Government. Jewish farms were attacked all over Palestine : Jewish houses were burnt, shops looted,
and whole orchards destroyed. Attacks on individual Jews led, within a month,
to the deaths of twenty-one Jews, several of them women and children..... Palestine
The British responded to this Arab violence.... The Jewish Agency urged the Jews to exercise restraint, and while Jews continued to be killed throughout
.... no Jewish reprisals took place.
British troops, however, killed more than 140 Arabs, and thirty-three British
soldiers were killed.... Palestine
For the Jews, it was galling to see what little effect the British protection could have....
On November 18, at the [British Royal] Commission's [to investigate the cause of unrest in Palestine] first public session, Eric Mills... informed the Commissioners that on his estimate there were, in mid-1936, 940,000 Arab and 370,000 Jews living in Palestine, and that 134,000 of the Jews had arrived since Hitler had come to power in Germany three and a half years before....
On November 24, Lewis Andrews, the acting Director of the Department of Development for the Galilee District, told the Commissioners that although he and his officials had made every effort to collect evidence of the Arab charge that Arab farmers had been displaced by Jews, little evidence had been forthcoming.....
A) WEIZMANN GIVES THE COMMISION A SUMMARY OF THE HISTORY OF JEWISH PERSECUTION AND OCCUPATION OF
Weitzman went on to explain to the Commissioners the appeal of
. 'We are a stiff-necked people and a
people of long memory,' he said. 'We never forget.' And he went on: Whether it
is our misfortune or whether it is our good fortune, we have never forgotten
Palestine, and this steadfastness, which has preserved the Jew through the ages
and through a career which is almost one long chain of inhuman suffering, is
primarily due to some physiological or pathological attachment to Palestine. Palestine
We have never forgotten it; we have never given it up. We have survived the Babylonian destruction. We have survived the Roman destruction. The Jews put up a fairly severe fight and the Roman invasion, which destroyed half of the civilized world, did not destroy small Judea; and whenever they once got a chance, the slightest chance, there they returned, there they created their literature, their colonies, towns and communities, and if the Commission would take the trouble to study the post-Roman period of the Jews, and the life of the Jews in Palestine, they would find that there was not a single century in the nineteen centuries which have passed since the destruction of Palestine as a Jewish political entity, not one single century in which the Jews did not attempt to come back..."
On November 30 the Commission examined Moshe Shertok, head of the Political Department of the Jewish Agency.....
Shertok replied: 'you might call the whole process of settlement of
a snowball process. Naturally every wave
of immigrants creates possibilities of salvation not only for themselves but
for those coming after them.... Palestine
There were cases 'where an Arab peasant takes on a Haurani [illegal Arab immigrant] as a farm hand, leaving him in charge of the farm, while he himself goes to a Jewish colony to be employed by a Jewish orange grower, in view of the difference between the wage he gets from the Jewish orange grower and the wage paid to the Haurani.'...
Arabs gained by Jewish enterprise. They had found in the Jews and expanding and profitable market for their produce, they had learnt from the Jews innumerable techniques of building and irrigation....
B) PARTITION OF
IS PROPOSED PALESTINE
On December 26 Professor Coupland, one of the members of the Peel Commission, went to Rehovot to see Dr. Weitzman. Coupland had begun to see a means of reconciling Arab and Jewish aspirations. He believed that part of
could be given to the Jews, and part to
the Arabs; a partition not only of land, but of sovereignty.... Palestine
Coupland's historical research had convinced him that two peoples, each with a separate sense of national identity, could not live together as equal partners in a single state. In this way, a Jewish 'mini-State' would come into being, and the Balfour Declaration be superseded and annulled....
C) CHURCHILL ONCE MORE DEFENDS PALESTINE AS A JEWISH NATIONAL HOME
On March 12 Winston Churchill was called before the Commissioners. In answer to a question from Lord Peel, he declared that the Jewish right to immigration ought not to be curtailed by the 'economic absorptive capacity of
, and he spoke of 'the good faith of Palestine to the Jews'. The British Government had
certainly committed itself.... England
Rumbold took up the questioning [of Churchill]. Was there not, he asked,' harsh injustice' to the Arabs if
attracted too many Jews from outside?
Churchill replied that even when the Jewish Home 'will become all Palestine ', and it eventually would, there was no
injustice. 'Why', he asked, 'is there harsh injustice done if people come in
and make a livelihood for more, and make the desert into palm groves and orange
groves? Why is it injustice because there is more work and wealth for
everybody? There is no injustice. The injustice is when those who live in the
country leave it to be desert for thousands of years'. .... Palestine
The Arabs he [Churchill] said, had come in after the Jews. It was the 'great hordes of Islam' who 'smashed'
up. 'You have seen the terraces on the
hills which used to be cultivated,' he told the Commissioners, 'which under
Arab rule have remained a desert.'... Palestine
[Ibid., pp. 178-194]:
A) THE PEEL COMMISSION REPORT ON PARTITION IS PRESENTED
"Even before the Peel Commissioners had reached any final conclusion, the pressures from Arab Governments, and Muslim leaders outside
became acute, as Weitzman, himself had
Within the Foreign Office, opinion had hardened against the Jews...
During April, the Government prepared to announce the decision of the Peel Commission for the establishment of two separate States in
, one Jewish, the other Arab, and with Palestine and a corridor to the coast excluded from
The Arabs outside
quickly made their opposition felt
towards any form of partition, or 'mini-State' for the Jews.... Palestine
The Peel Commission Report... [was presented] on June 25...
The Jews... were likely 'to turn every political stone to undermine Report but unlikely to use force'...
The Peel Commission report was debated in the British Parliament on July 21....
On July 30... William Ormsby Gore explained the change in British policy to the Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations, at
.... Gore stressed the extent to which the
Jewish fate in Palestine was now bound up - in Britain's view - with the
attitude, not of the Arabs of Palestine alone, but of the whole Arab world, and
indeed of the Muslim world as well... Geneva
The Revisionist leader Vladimir Jabotinsky pointed out that 'such a Jewish State would be destined to be eventually captured by the neighboring Arab States, the conquest being probably accompanied by destruction and massacre'....
B) THE ARABS IN
NOT REGARD THEMSELVES AS PALESTINIANS BUT AS PART OF SYRIA AS A WHOLE, AS PART
OF THE ARAB WORLD PALESTINE
Ormsby Gore argued, the Arabs in
'had not hitherto regarded themselves as
'Palestinians', but as part of Palestine as a whole, as part of the Arab world'.
They could [Ormsby proposed as part of the Peel Commission plan of partition],
therefore, be transferred out of many areas allocated to a Jewish sovereign
state. 'They would', Ormsby Gore declared, 'be going only a comparatively few
miles away to a people with the same languages, the same civilization, the same
FACED THE ENTIRE WORLD OF ARAB AND MUSLIM NATIONS RE: HER PALESTINIAN POLICY BRITAIN
In September, in
, four hundred Arabs, representing all the
Arab States as well as Damascus itself, resolved that Palestine was 'an integral party of the Arabian
homeland', and insisted that Palestine had to choose 'between our friendship and
the Jews'. By the end of the year violence had broken out again..... Britain
British troops began an intensive military campaign against Arab terrorists....
The stage was clearly set for a radical change in British policy, and for the beginning of the end of the plan of partition. Neither the continuing flow of refugees from the persecutions in Germany, nor the reviving anti-Semitism in Poland, affecting as it did more than three million Jews, could weigh against the threats and pressures of the Arab world. On October 27, in a Foreign Office memorandum entitled '
. Immediate Problem', Rendel gave the
reasons for a new policy. Firstly, he wrote, 'bands of Arabs from neighboring
countries are waiting to take the first opportunity to cross into Palestine to
assist in the guerilla warfare which is being proposed against the Mandatory
Powers'; they were doing so because they regarded the partition policy 'as
involving their ultimate extinction'; inevitably, the Arab rulers themselves
would given the Palestinian Arabs 'an increasing degree of sympathy and
support'. Nor was the strength of the Arabs confined to their influence within
the Arab world, for, as Rendel wrote: Palestine
...we have many enemies in
Europe, and there are clear signs that the Arabs
are already turning to them for help against us....
Not only had a British District Commissioner, Lewis Andrews, been murdered at the end of September, but each week moderate Arabs were being killed by Arab extremists....
The whole history of the last 20 years in Palestine have made it abundantly clear that by no other means than terrorism could the Arabs hope to get what they consider a square deal....
Rendel was now ready to put forward his solution: the scrapping of partition, and the imposition on the Jews of
of permanent minority status.... Palestine
What possible chance had the hopes of Palestinian Jewry, or the needs of European Jewry, against such arguments, in which the possibility of the Jews being masters of their own destiny was pitted against Britain's strategic aims from the Suez Canal to the Straits of Bab el Mandeb; and against Britain's future relations with four separate existing Arab sovereign States, including two, Iraq and Saudi Arabia, whose oil was already referred to in the documents as a vital British need....
[Ibid., pp. 195-215]:
"From the beginning of 1938, British policy focused increasingly on the very solution which the Jews feared most: the fixing of permanent minority status on Palestinian Jewry, by means of a severe cut-back, and eventual ban, on Jewish immigration.....
The pressures which had come from the
Muslims in 1937 continued into 1938... India
, the Jews had been confronted since the
beginning of 1938 with an increase in Arab violence, including the murder of
Jewish farmers, and sniping at Jewish buses and trucks.... Palestine
For the Jews of
Europe, already the victims of hatreds beyond their control,
March 1938 saw a further deterioration in their hopes of a normal life, for on
March 15 Hitler entered , and direct Nazi rule was at once
extended to Vienna .... Austria
Leopold Amery... wrote to Malcolm MacDonald, the new Colonial Secretary, on 30 May 1938: 'There is no real comparison between the quite natural resentment of the Arabs at seeing the character of their country changed, though with material advantage to themselves, [emphasis mine] and the agony of the Jews of Central Europe, for whom there was no serious alternative city of refuge'....
The situation of the Jews was becoming desperate. In
and Germany their thousand year old communities were
rapidly being destroyed. In Austria and Poland anti-Semitism had again become open,
vociferous and violent. Throughout Rumania Europe, the possibility of Nazi rule, or
pro-Nazi regimes, encouraged and stimulated anti-Jewish feeling. In the Soviet
Union, any attempt to express a specifically Jewish culture was suppressed, and
all Zionist activity stamped out: indeed, several hundred thousand of the more
active Jewish citizens, including all the Jewish Bolshevik leaders who had
roused British hostility in the 1920s, had been wiped out in the Stalinist
purges, then at their height. In , Arab attacks on Jews continued with
terrible effect... Above all, the continuing restrictions on Jewish immigration
from Palestine Europe were a constant source of distress for
all Palestinian Jewry....
MacDonald... warned of the danger of any policy that might 'arouse hostility amongst Moslems in
', at a time when India was trying to evolve a scheme of
Federation in which Hindus and Muslims would both participate. Above all,
MacDonald argued, the Arab rebellion in Britain tied down 'considerable armed forces,
thus immobilizing them for action anywhere else.'... Palestine
On July 6... an international conference opened in
, at the town of France ... The Evian decision to maintain its strict quotas
served as a guideline for other States.... Only the Dutch, the Danes, and the United States agreed to let in refugees without
restriction.... Republic of Santo Domingo
A resolution was passed which stated that 'the countries of asylum' - such as they were - 'are not willing to undertake any obligation towards financing involuntary emigration.'...
Since February 1938, with the resignation of Anthony Eden and his replacement by Lord Halifax as Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, the policy of appeasement [of the Arabs] had been actively pursued.... During the summer of 1938, the British Government moved steadily away from Partition....
itself, the violence continued.... Palestine
The Report [of the Government of
, 1937] noted that since 1922 the Arab
population... increased by 261,000, compared with a Jewish increase of
245,000... the Arab population, by both its own immigration and a higher
birthrate, had grown by a larger absolute number than the Jewish population.
The Report also referred to those Arabs who were dispossessed of their land as
a result of Jewish land purchase, noting that for the whole of 1937 only six
Arab families had claimed to have been dispossessed: and that each had then
been settled on Government land as compensation..... Palestine
On August 12, in a secret note to his Cabinet colleagues, enclosing transcripts of his
and London conversations, MacDonald noted: Jerusalem
'Great harm had already been done in Palestine by rumors that the wisdom of Partition had been questioned in the Cabinet, which have encouraged the Arab terrorists and those behind them to believe that if only they persist in their campaign they will force us to abandon this policy.'
The extremists were so powerful, MacDonald added, 'that they virtually dictate Arab policy'....
As 1938 progressed, more and more boats, many of them organized by the Revisionists, brought Jews from
, Poland and central Germany Europe across the Black Sea, through the Aegean Sea, and on to . These 'illegal' immigrants were determined
not to remain in a Palestine Europe where their future was clearly bleak. The British Government
responded to this traffic by putting pressure on all the Governments between and Poland , not to allow the refugees, or the ships,
to pass..... Palestine
Unprovoked and savage Arab attacks on Jewish civilian settlements continued unabated.....
Between 1933 and 1939 more than 65,000 German and Austrian Jews, including many doctors, lawyers and other professional men, found asylum in
. But tens of thousands more were refused
permission to enter, and those who were able to gain entry into Britain were an even smaller portion of those who
sought to enter.... Palestine
At the end of September 1938 the British Government put pressure on
to accede to Hitler's demands.... Czechoslovakia
Leopold Amery... writing...
's Britain policy 'is a replica on a small scale of
the European situation: absence of policy and fear of irritating those who mean
mischief in any case'..... Palestine
Sir Alison Russell.... stated...
'It has been alleged that the Jews have acquired the best land in
. It does not appear to me a fair
statement. That much of the land now in possession of Jews has become the best
land is a true statement....' Palestine
Prime Minister, Neville Chamberlain, stated bluntly that as '
had become a Pan Arab question' any
discussion of its future had to include not only the Arabs of Palestine but also those whom he called the 'Arab
Princes' from the neighboring Arab States, including Palestine , Saudi Arabia Transjordan and the . In its conclusion, the Cabinet's
Palestine Committee of October 24 decided that the proposals of the Peel
Commission should be abandoned, and that a public announcement should be made
to the effect that 'the setting up of independent Arab and Jewish States, is
28 October 1938 the German Government began the
deportation of all Polish-born Jews....
Malcolm MacDonald [British Cabinet]...
'The [British] government had to choose between its commitments to the world of Jewry and its commitments to the world of Islam. In spite of the adversities which it was now suffering, the world of Jewry remained extremely influential. For example, there were said to be 3 million Jews in the
. On the other hand, the United States British Empire itself was to a very considerable extent
a Moslem Empire, some 80 millions of our fellow subjects in were Moslems. From the defense point of
view it was literally out of the question that we should antagonize either the
Moslems within the Empire or the Arab kingdoms of the near East.' India
XVII) 'THE VIOLATION OF THE PLEDGE'
[Ibid., pp. 216-235]:
"The crux of the new [British] policy in a secret Cabinet memorandum on January 18. As the MacDonald memorandum explained:
'We cannot accept the contention that all Jews as such have a right to enter
We cannot avoid an eventual clash, if we continue to carry out the Balfour Declaration, between the forces of persecuted, desperate, brilliant, constructive Jewry in
and the widespread pan-Arab movement
which is rallying to the defense of its weakest brethren the Arabs of Palestine . Palestine
Arab detestation of the Jewish invasion into Palestine being what it is, it would be wholly wrong to suggest that this large Arab population should one day in their own native land and against their will come under the rule of the newly arrived Jews....'
These paragraphs became the basis of the [British] government's policy. At the same time, attempts were made to seek the opinions of various Colonial Governors as to the possibility of at least some small Jewish immigration elsewhere..... even... to the
The Zionists adhered to that very Jewish 'right' to enter
which was established in the 'Churchill'
White Paper of 1922.... Palestine
The Government now made an attempt to persuade Weitzman to abandon all Jewish rights in
It was during the Cabinet meeting of January 27, that Malcolm MacDonald reinterpreted the Churchill White Paper statement of 1922, that the Jews were in Palestine 'as of right, and not on sufferance'..... [which] referred only to those Jews who were already living in
in 1922, and not to those who reached Palestine later, or might do so in the future.... Palestine
[Clearly this was not the message of Churchill's White Paper]
During February and March 1939 new decisions were made by the Cabinet with regard to
. Each of these decisions proved fatal to Palestine being kept open to refugees... Palestine
The British Government were taking active steps to check, and if possible to halt, the continuing flow of 'illegal' Jewish immigrants fleeing from central
Europe...... to ... Palestine
Neville Chamberlain declared... that it was of 'immense importance' from the point of view of strategy, 'to have the Moslem world with us', and he added: 'If we must offend one side, let us offend the Jews rather than the Arabs.'.....
A) THE 1939
[MACDONALD] WHITE PAPER VIOLATES THE BALFOUR DOCTRINE AND ENCOURAGES ARABS TO
FIGHT JEWISH SETTLEMENT ALL THE MORE BY VIOLENT MEANS PALESTINE
By the end of April 1939, the
White Paper was finalized, imposing upon Palestine severe restrictions which would fix an
upper limit of 100,000 on the number of Jewish immigrants to be admitted over
the following five years, after which the Arabs would have an effective veto on
any further Jewish immigration..... Palestine
MacDonald... told his Cabinet colleagues on May 1... certain points had been inserted to meet Arab pressure and which, perhaps, would have been omitted if the matter were looked at on strict merits.'.....
The House of Commons debated the new White Paper, against which Leopold Amery spoke with much force, telling the House that the Government's watchword had now become 'appease the Arabs', and to do so 'by breaking faith with the Jews'. Amery went on:
'The [MacDonald] White Paper is a direct invitation to the Arabs to continue to make trouble. As for the Jews, they are now told that all the hopes that they have been encouraged to hold for 20 years are to be dashed to the ground..... all the pledges and promises.. broken...
They [the Palestinian Jews] are a formidable body of people. They are composed largely of younger men who have undergone military training and are quite capable of defending themselves.... if only we allowed them....'
Winston Churchill spoke with force and bitterness against what he believed was both a betrayal of the Balfour Declaration, and a shameful act of appeasement....
Churchill drew attention to... the large Arab as well as Jewish immigration into
since the beginning of the Mandate....
Not only Jewish immigrants, but Arab immigrants had been drawn to Palestine by its new-found prosperity, and the
Arabs like the Jews had been drawn from a wide geographic area.... Palestine
The MacDonald White Paper - known henceforth to the Jews as the 'Black Paper' - led not only to widespread distress among world Jewry, and strong protests throughout the Jewish community in Palestine, but also to a widespread feeling among the majority of Jews both in Palestine and beyond that henceforth the future, not only of Jewish immigration into Palestine, but of the whole nature of a future Jewish entity there, depended first and foremost, not upon the British with whom power lay, but upon the renewed efforts, struggles and perseverance of the Jews themselves. By making the possibility of Jewish statehood more remote, and even impossible... the MacDonald White paper... had the reverse effect to their intentions, by stimulating and sharpening the Jewish goal of statehood and full independence....
XVIII) TOWARDS THE ABYSS
[Ibid., pp. 236-251]:
"During the summer of 1939 the number of Jewish 'illegal' immigrants seeking to reach
considerably. In response, the British Government continued, with mounting vigor,
to seek to stop the ships reaching Palestine ... Palestine
During the autumn of 1939 the British Government made several attempts to influence
against the 'illegal' immigration... United
In his article [NT Times writer] Levy wrote...
'Under normal conditions illegal immigrants constitute the best constructive elements for the country, since those whose entry is effected with the approval of national Jewish organizations are previously trained for Palestine life and labor conditions.
But groups organized by the Revisionists are based on the wider assumption that any Jew willing to go to
It is no secret that the Jewish population of
sympathetic and helpful to all organizations now taking the latter wider view. Palestine
It is interesting to note that even the
in general are not antagonistic toward these illegal immigrants. Many of the
latter recount instances of Arab charity when they wandered unknowingly into
Arab villages. While some of the Fellaheen ran to report them to the police,
the refugees report, others sheltered the newcomers, sharing their bread and
...To show its displeasure at the continuation of 'illegal' immigration, the Government had decided 'a short while ago' to suspend all legal immigration... At the same time, 'illegal' immigrant ships would still be intercepted and turned back...
Jewish refugees were being denied entry into more and more countries... [many other countries] were tightening their entry regulations and frontier controls....
On September 1  the Germans invaded
view of severe persecutions vs. Jews in Poland ]
relaxation of British Colonial restrictions met with a negative response....
With the coming of war, the British Government had not only continued, but even
intensified, its attempts to halt the flow of 'illegal' Jewish refugees...
Throughout the winter months of 1939 and 1940, while the British were thus
fighting the 'illegal' Jewish immigration, the Germans were imposing their evil
rule upon Poland ... Poland
For the Jews of
had brought a new spirit of determination... Recruitment and a desire to serve
the Allied cause went parallel with the hope of bringing in, legally or
'illegally', as many European Jews as could escape the torment of Nazi rule.... Palestine
[Churchill, now First Lord of the Admiralty urged Parliament to form a Jewish army in
in the war effort]: Palestine
'It might have been thought a matter for satisfaction that the Jews in
possess arms, and be capable of providing for their own defense. They were the
only trustworthy friends we had in that country, and they were much more under
our control than the scattered Arab population... to replace the eleven
infantry battalions hitherto locked up in Palestine...' Palestine
Churchill was not successful.... [There was fear of] repercussions throughout the Muslim world... This same War Cabinet of
February 1940 discussed the 1939 White Paper decision
to limit Jewish land purchase in ... the
land purchase regulations were put into force... Palestine
Despite this setback to their position in
Jews now pressed for the creation of a specifically Jewish military force...
which could fight the Germans... But both the Foreign Office and the War Office
opposed it.... Palestine
Early in November 1940 two ships.... reached
1,771 'illegal' immigrants. The High Commissioner... refused to allow them to
land, and they were transferred to a French liner.... to deport them to the Haifa Indian
Ocean .... island of Mauritius
[But Churchill raised an objection]:
"Churchill's telegram was decisive... the Patria deportees were allowed to remain in
in the internment camp at Athlit, and within a year, at liberty.... Palestine
[But in response to this] the British Government suspended the quota for legal immigration for three months... Subsequently, the quota for April to September 1941was also suspended...
[and there were punitive measures for those Jewish immigrants on the Patria]:
...conditions of the detention of the deportees 'should be sufficiently punitive to continue to act as a deterrent to other Jews in
As the war continued, the Zionists were appalled by the mounting campaign of terror against the Jews of Poland, and by the continuing refusal of the British Government to modify in any way the immigration of land purchase restrictions of the 1939 White Paper....
XIX) BEYOND THE ABYSS
[Ibid., pp. 252-257]:
"From the moment that the Germans marched into
September 1939, Nazi sadism found horrific outlets on Polish Jewry.... Poland
Only a tiny remnant of the Jews of German-occupied
survived the Nazi executions... Russia
XX) HOLOCAUST, RESISTANCE AND FLIGHT
[Ibid., pp. 258-271]:
"Following the Wannsee Conference of January 1942, the Nazis began the systematic deportation and murder of Jews from all over
Europe. Their destination was the death camps,
most of which had been set up on Polish soil....
By the time of
's surrender in May 1945, six million Jews
had been murdered.... Many others... at [forced labor] camps.... Others had
been shot dead while on the march , or left to die of hunger at the
roadside.... Others starved to death, without even water, in the sealed railway
trucks.... Some... at the hands of doctors sadistically experimenting... Germany
Haj Amin, the Mufti, had gone to
, where, on April 8, he expressed publicly
the sympathy of the 'Arab nation' for Berlin , and offered Hitler the active support of
the Arabs... Germany
Sir Harold Macmichael, rejected [Iraqi Jewish immigration in view of persecution in
] on the grounds... that there was no work
for them to do.... This in spite of the Jewish Agency's assertion the previous
April... that there was a shortage of more than 4,000 agricultural workers on
Jewish farms and settlements.... Iraq
Under a previous War Cabinet decision of 27 November 1940, all 'illegal' immigrants who had been detained would have to be deported to the Indian Ocean island of Mauritius... and held there until the end of the war, when they would be released, on condition that they then went elsewhere than Palestine....
A) THE BILTMORE PROGRAMME
6 May 1942 an Extraordinary Zionist Conference... in
... its theme... Jews could no longer depend upon Britain to
establish a National Home in Palestine.... a majority of the delegates were
committed to the establishment of Palestine as a 'Jewish Commonwealth', as well
as an end to all immigration restrictions.... New
[B) CHURCHILL'S MEMORANDUM]:
'We have certainly treated the Arabs very well, having installed King Feisal and his descendants upon the Throne of Iraq and maintained them there; having maintained the Emir Abdullah in Transjordan and having asserted the rights of self-government for the Arabs and other inhabitants of Syria.
With the exception of Ibn Saud and the Emir Abdullah, both of whom have been good and faithful followers, the Arabs have been virtually of no use to us in the present war. They have taken no part in the fighting, except in so far as they were involved in the
rebellion against us. They have created
no new claims upon the Allies, should we be victorious.'... Iraq
In the British House of Commons, pressure continued to try to create an Allied open door for those refugees who did manage to escape.....
Despite his pre-occupations with the conduct of the war, Churchill had continued to support the idea of an eventual Jewish National Home in
with a Jewish majority.... But as the war
progressed he had begun to accept the arguments which the Peel commission had
put forward before the war, and which many Jews had also accepted, albeit
reluctantly, in favor of two separate States in Palestine, one Arab and one
C) THE IRGUN JEWISH TERRORISM ORGANIZATION IS FORMED
, a tiny group of desperate Jews felt
unable either to trust Palestine 's word, or to wait until the war was
over. Calling themselves the Irgun Zvai Leumi - the 'National Military
Organization' - and holding Jabotinsky as their inspiration, in January 1944
they called upon the Jews of Britain to revolt. Their demand was 'Immediate
transfer of power in Eretz Palestine to a Provisional Hebrew Government'.
Their method, expressed succinctly by their leader, Menachem Begin in his
memoirs The Revolt, was: 'A prolonged campaign of destruction...' Israel
Jewish terrorism... had broken out against the British in
.... Lord Moyne was assassinated in Palestine by two young Jews... Cairo
[On the other hand] The deliberate murder of
Europe's Jews was reaching its terrible climax,
with more than five million Jews having already perished, and hundreds of
thousands more being murdered each month. For the British policymakers,
however, the overriding concern still seemed to remain that of the Jewish
refugees seeking to reach ... Palestine
itself, despite the intense bitterness
created by the ant refugee policy, 33,000 Jews enlisted in the British Army.... Palestine
....compared with the total of 9,000 Arabs.... long before the end of the war, this total was reduced by at least one-half through desertions and discharges...
The Jewish death toll will never be fully known. Among the million and a half children who were murdered were many whose names were never recorded. Hundreds of thousands of individuals, whose names are found before the war in lists of doctors, nurses or teachers, students or lawyers, writers or poets, disappeared without trace.
In the Nazi lists of those deported by train to the concentration camps, tens of thousands from as far away as
, France , Belgium or Italy , are many whose exact fate is unknown.
That they were murdered is certain.... Six million is the million figure of
those who perished.... Greece
[Ibid, pp. 272-298]:
"With the end of the war in
Europe on 8 May 1945, Jews all over the world hoped, and
expected, that the doors of would be opened for the survivors of the
22 May 1945, two weeks after the German surrender,
Dr. Weitzman wrote direct to Churchill, to ask that Jewish immigration be
resumed. But in his reply on June 8, Churchill informed Weitzman that there
could be 'no possibility of the question being effectively considered' until
the proposed Peace Conference. Weitzman was appalled by this decision to delay
what was, for the survivors of the holocaust, a matter of urgency. On June 13
he replied to Churchill that the contents of Churchill's letter had come 'as a
great shock' to him....
President Truman's wish that the survivors of the concentration camps should be allowed into
had.... already led to protests not only
from the Arab States, but also from 'the Congress in Palestine '..... India
The exodus of Polish Jews did not end at
. All over Berlin Europe, Zionist emissaries were organizing
'escape' routes to .... Palestine
A struggle now began, in
and in Palestine Europe, between the British Government and the
Jews: a struggle marked by increasing bitterness and extremism on both sides.
The British, determined to halt the now swelling tide of 'illegal' immigration
from liberated Europe to Mandatory Palestine, went so far as to return captured
immigrants from the waters of the eastern Mediterranean to which they had
sailed, to the displaced camps in Germany from which they had fled. In Europe itself, at the frontier crossings between
and Austria , British troops halted concentration camp
survivors who were on their way to the Italy Adriatic, and to , and held them in former prisoner-of-war
, the Irgun, [Jewish terrorist organization
headed by Menachem Begin] reacted by attacking British military installations,
and, as death sentences and reprisals increased the tension, acts of increasing
desperation marked their efforts.... Force alone, the Irgun believed, could
bring an end to the White Paper, open Palestine to unimpeded Jewish immigration, and make
possible a Jewish majority, and Jewish statehood.... Palestine
Since the beginning of 1945, the newspaper [
Guardian] reported, some 353 Jews had
been murdered by Polish thugs. 'Unfortunately,' it added, 'anti' Semitism is
still prevalent.... Manchester
large numbers of Polish Jews are in fact succeeding in leaving
, their objective being the British and
American Zones in Poland and Germany en route for Austria and thence by illegal means to Italy ... Palestine
The great majority of the Jews wanted to leave
: they looked upon Poland as their traditional home, the cradle of
their race and the centre of their faith.... Palestine
Despite British efforts to prevent the Polish Jews from setting out on the hazardous road to
, the situation inside Palestine itself made flight inevitable.... Poland
Nine months had passed since V-E day and their [the Jews'] British and American liberators had made no move to accept them in their own countries. They had gathered them into centers in
, fed them and clothed them, and then
apparently believed that their Christian duty had been accomplished.... They
[the Jews] knew that far away in Germany there was a national home willing and
eager to receive them and to give them a chance of rebuilding their lives, not
as aliens in a foreign state but as Hebrews in their own country... Palestine
The hunger strike [by Jews on two ships] was, in fact, successful, and on May 8, the Dov Hos and the Eliahu Golomb sailed for Palestine, their 1,014 passengers having been granted immigration certificates from the month's quota....
A) THE ANGLO-AMERICAN COMMITTEE REPORT
The Anglo-American Committee published its Report on
Among its recommendations were the end to the land purchase restrictions of the
1939 White Paper, and the immediate grant of 100,000 immigration certificates
to the Jewish survivors. The Jews of were bitterly disappointed that their
hope of statehood was not endorsed by the Committee, which recommended a continuation
of the Mandate... Palestine
Frustration now overcame, and indeed almost overwhelmed, the Jews of
. On June 16 the military arm of the
Jewish Agency, the Haganah, blew up nine bridges, and damaged the Palestine Railway workshops... Haifa
On June 29 the British retaliated... sealing... buildings.... arresting three thousand Jews.... including most of the senior members of the Zionist Executive...
Meanwhile, the pogroms in
continued.... In Poland ... forty-two Jews were killed.... Within
twenty-four hours of the Poland pogrom, more than five thousand Jews fled
from all over Kielce ... they were harassed wherever they
went.... These new refugees also turned towards Poland .... Palestine
itself the arrest of the Zionist leaders
had created a ferment of discontent... Within three weeks that despair reached
a climax with, on July 22, the blowing up of the Palestine in King David Hotel by members of the Irgun. Ninety-one
people were killed: British administrators working in the hotel, Arabs and
B) WINSTON CHURCH REVERSES HIS SUPPORT FOR THE JEWS SETTLEMENT IN
EN MASSE PALESTINE
"Britain, said Churchill, should not be 'in too great a hurry' to give up the idea that European Jews 'may live in the countries where they belong' and he continued:
'I must say that I had no idea, when the war came to an end, of the horrible massacres which had occurred; the millions and millions that have been slaughtered. That dawned on us gradually after the struggle was over. But if all these immense millions have been killed and slaughtered, there must be a certain amount of living room for the survivors, and there must be inheritance and properties to which they can lay claim.
Are we not to hope that some tolerance will be established in racial matters in
Europe, and that there will be some law reigning by which, at any rate,
a portion of the property of these great numbers will not be taken away from
them? It is quite clear, however, that this crude idea of letting all the Jews
of Europe go into has no relation either to the problem of Palestine Europe or to the problem which arises in ." Palestine
Churchill then referred to the King David explosion. 'It is perfectly clear', he told the Commons, 'that Jewish warfare directed against the British in Palestine will, if protracted, automatically release us from all obligations to persevere, as well as destroy the inclination to make further efforts in British hearts.' And yet, Churchill added, 'we must not be in a hurry to turn aside from large causes which we have carried far'.
For many Jews, Churchill's speech, and in particular his remark about the absurdity of allowing the holocaust survivors to go to
, was a bitter disappointment.... Palestine
The history of British hesitations with regard to the war crimes trials reveals the extent to which the Jews, despite the enormity of their sufferings, were not considered either a nation, or a people who, having suffered as such, deserved the support of the existing Allied states....
In October 1946 eleven new Jewish settlements were established in the
Negev in a single night, aimed at ensuring that
the Negev would be included within the boundaries
of the State. Two weeks earlier, on October 1, Weitzman had gone to see Bevin
at the Foreign Office, to ask Bevin to agree to some form of partition, as
first put forward ten years earlier by the Peel Commissioners. But Bevin
replied: 'The Arabs would not accept partition. Was he to force it on them with
British bayonets?' Bevin also spoke of the growing anti-Semitic under the skin
as there exists now'.
The 22nd Zionist Congress opened in
Basle on 9 December
new Negev settlements, Weitzman told the delegates,
'have, in my deepest conviction, a far greater weight than a hundred speeches
about resistance - especially when the speeches are made in , while the proposed resistance is to be
made in Tel-Aviv and New York '. Weitzman did not minimize the cause of
Jewish bitterness. Indeed, his speech contained a powerful reproach of Jerusalem 's White Paper policy, for, as he told the
delegates, in bitter tones: Britain
'Whenever a new country was about to come under Gestapo rule, we asked that the gates of the National Home be opened for saving as many as possible of our people from the gas-chambers. Our entreaties fell on deaf ears; it seemed that the White Paper was more sacred for some people than life itself.
Sometimes we were told that our exclusion from Palestine was necessary in order to do justice to a nation endowed with seven independent territories, covering a million square miles; at other times we were informed that the admission of our refugees might endanger military security during the war.
It was easier to doom the Jews of
Europe to a certain death than to evolve a
technique for overcoming such difficulties. When human need, the instinct of
self-preservation, collided with the White Paper, the result was the ' Struma', the 'Patria' and .' Mauritius
These were stern words, describing a situation which many of the delegates regarded as a justification for armed resistance....
[Ibid, pp. 297-309]:
"For six years, from 1939 to 1945, the Jews had been caught between the evil designs of those who sought to destroy them, and the indifference of those who had no special desire to help them. Six million had been murdered; not only Jewish lives, but Jewish life, had been blotted out. Traditions, possessions, culture, the natural evolution of future generations of many more millions: all had been destroyed, more than one third of the whole of world Jewry. No longer could the Jews entrust their fate to others; the Holocaust was a bitter, final culmination of two thousand years of persecution. By the winter of 1946 the arguments in favor of Jewish statehood were, for the Jews, of overwhelming clarity.
itself, the British remained vigilant in
their search for hidden Jewish arms. Jews caught in possession of arms were
arrested, imprisoned, and even flogged. Following one such flogging, on Palestine 29
December 1946 the Irgun seized a British major and three sergeants, and flogged
them in retaliation. With the opening weeks of 1947 the violence increased: on
January 1 and Irgun group, in attacking a British police post, killed a
policemen. The British Press began to urge partition, and a British withdrawal.
The British Government was coming close to the end of both its patience and its self-confidence. On
1 January 1947, at a meeting of the Cabinet's Defense
Committee, it was agreed 'that to continue this policy in in present circumstances placed the Armed
Forces in an impossible position'. Three days later the Secretary-General of
the Arab League, General Azzam Pasha, announced that the Arabs would vote against
any partition scheme that might be put forward, and they would continue to
oppose any further Jewish immigration. Palestine
Such Arab hostility was well known. But on the morning of January 7 a new factor was introduced into the
Middle East discussion, which made Arab goodwill even
more essential. For on that day a 'top Secret' memorandum.. was circulated....
[it] stressed, was likely to provide 'a greater proportion of the total world
increase of production than any other oil-bearing region'....
.... went on to warn of the grave risks involved in offending the Arabs 'by appearing to encourage Jewish settlement and to endorse the Jewish aspiration for a separate State'....
The certainty of Arab hostility to partition is so clear...
A) THE UNITED NATIONS IS INVOLVED -
TURNS THE PROBLEM OF BRITAIN OVER TO UNSCOP PALESTINE
The Cabinet now came to a decision which marked a turning point in the history of the British Mandate. Failing 'an agreed settlement' between Jews and Arabs, the Cabinet minute recorded, 'any solution of this problem would have to come before the United Nations.'...
On February 14... Bevin announced that
would hand the whole problem to the
United Nations.... Britain
On May 15 the United Nations set up a Special Committee on
, known popularly by its initials as
Four of the eleven [UNSCOP] committee members [went] to
to see for themselves what was happening.
There, Eban wrote in his autobiography.... Haifa
The Jewish refugees [coming from
aboard the ship Exodus which
were transferred to the ship Empire Rival to be returned] had
decided not to accept banishment [back to Germany Europe [to face continued and deadly
persecution] with docility. If any one had wanted to know what Churchill meant by
a 'squalid war', he would have found out by watching British soldiers using
rifle butts, hose pipes and tear gas against the survivors of the death camps.
Men, women and children were forcibly taken off the prison ships, locked in
cages below decks and sent out of waters.' Palestine
When the four members of UNSCOP came back to Jerusalem, Eban recalled, 'they were pale with shock', and he added: 'I could see that they were preoccupied with one point alone: if this was the only way that the British Mandate could continue, it would be better not to continue it at all.'...
The Empire Rival was sent [to
Europe with the refugees]... Forced by British
troops to disembark on the hated German soil from which they had already fled,
these 'illegals' were sent to a Displaced Persons Camp at Poppendorf.....
On July 4 David Ben Gurion appeared before UNSCOP....
'An unbroken tie between our people and our land has persisted through all these centuries in full force,'...
The homelessness and minority position make the Jews always dependent on the mercy of others... they are never masters of their own destiny; the are entirely defenseless when the majority of people turn against them.
What happened to our people in this war is merely a climax to the uninterrupted persecution to which we have been subjected for centuries by almost all the Christian and Moslem peoples in the old world..
The Jews do not want to stay where they are. They want to regain their human dignity, their homeland, they want a reunion with their kin in
after having lost their dearest
relations. To them, the countries of their birth are a graveyard of their
people. They do not wish to return there and they cannot.... Palestine
Moses... acted from divine inspiration. He might have brought us to the
, and instead of the United States we might have had the Jordan ... We are an ancient people with an old
history, and you cannot deny your history and begin afresh...' Mississippi
For the establishment of the Jewish National Home, Weitzman told the Committee... the time had come for the 'home' to evolve. Partition would, he believed, be the best evolution in the current circumstances...
The UNSCOP deliberations continued to a background of violence.... [between the British and the Irgun and Stern gangs ]...
Bitterness poisoned all hope of a return to any form of normal relations while British rule continued.
C) UNSCOP DECIDES UPON PARTITION
UNSCOP held its last meeting on August 31. Its majority report... proposed the creation of two separate and independent States, one Arab and one Jewish, with the city of
under international trusteeship.... Jerusalem
The Arab Higher Committee rejected [it]... The Jewish Agency accepted....
29 November 1947 the General Assembly of the United
Nations voted on the UNSCOP proposals, which were accepted by thirty-three
votes to thirteen, with ten abstentions.... was among those States which abstained.
All six independent Arab States voted against the plan... Britain
From the moment of the United Nations vote, Arab terrorists and armed bands attacked Jewish men, women and children all over the country.... [and all over the world]..
Arab attacks rose in viciousness during the first four months of 1948, as Jewish
was besieged and it water supply cut
GAINS STATEHOOD AFTER BRITIAN WITHDRAWS ISRAEL
The British announced that they would withdraw from
altogether on May 15... Palestine
Many of the Arabs involved in these military acts, and in the sniping and killing of Jewish civilians, were regular soldiers from outside
, from Palestine , and even from Syria ... Iraq
During April and early May, every isolated Jewish village was subjected to a massive attack..
Despite the Arab attacks, the Jews were determined not to be driven out of their promised 'mini' State. In the full scale battles that developed during April between the Arab and Jewish armed forces, Tiberius,
, Haifa Acre, Safed and were occupied by Jewish forces between
April19 and May 14, while in Jaffa , Arab troops were driven from several
suburbs. Between November 1947 and May 1948, more than 4,000 Jewish soldiers
and 2,000 Jewish civilians had been killed, nearly 1 per cent of the total
Jewish population.... Jerusalem
As May 15, the day of the British withdrawal, drew near... four well armed Arab armies, those of Egypt, Transjordan, Syria and the Lebanon were massing on the southern, western and northern borders, preparing to invade at the very moment of the British withdrawal...
On the morning of May 14 the last British High Commissioner left
. Jerusalem 's thirty year rule was at an end. That
same afternoon, in Tel Aviv, Ben Gurion declared the independence of the Jewish
State, to be called 'the State of Britain .' Israel
The coming into existence of the State of
was opposed by every Israel , and in the war that followed, the Jews -
Israelis now - suffered considerable losses. But their State survived, forming
a small but viable entity on the eastern shore of the Arab State Mediterranean. More than 550,000 Palestinian Arabs had
fled from the area which became Israel; more than two-thirds of them fled to
other areas of Palestine - the West Bank and the Gaza Strip - which had been
allocated under the United Nations Partition Plan to Arab sovereignty, areas
which were at once occupied by Transjordan and Egypt respectively...
Between 1948 and 1952, more than half a million Jews from Arab lands as far apart as Morocco and the Yemen, flocked to Israel, and rebuilt their lives without the stigma of second-class citizenship... more than 120,000 Jews... in the decade after 1967, reached Israel from the Soviet Union.
Many nations and people are questioning
’s control of its
liberated territory. Israel
No one is mentioning that the Arab countries had ejected about a million Jewish people and their children from their countries, confiscated their assets, businesses, homes and Real estate. Many of the Jews ejected from Arab countries died while their forced departure from Arab countries, due to hardship, famine and starvation. 650,00 Jewish people and their children of these expelled Jewish people and their children were resettled in Greater Israel. The Land the Arab countries confiscated from the Jewish people 120,440 sq. km. or 75,000 sq. miles, which is over 5-6 times the size of
, and its value today is the trillions of dollars. Israel
The Jewish people and their children during the over 2,000 years living in Arab countries have suffered Pogroms, Libel claims, beheadings, beatings, false imprisonment and extreme hardship as a second class citizens. They had their businesses and homes pillaged, their wives and daughters raped, sold them as slaves, their houses of worship pillaged and burned, forced conversion to Islam.
Today over half of
's population are Jews expelled from Arab countries
and their children and grandchildren. Israel
The Audacity of the Arab countries in demanding territory from the Jewish people in Palestine after they ejected over a million Jewish people and their children who have lived in Arab land for over 2,000 years and after they confiscated all their assets and Real estate 5-6 times the size of Israel (120,440 sq. km. - 75,000 sq. mi.), valued in the trillions of dollars.
Now the Arab nations are demanding more land and more compensation.
The Arab countries have chased the million Jews and their children and now the want to chase them away again, from their own historical land.
The Jewish people have suffered enough in the Diaspora for the past 2,500 years. It is time for the Jewish people to live as free people in their own land without violence and terror.
It is time to consider that the only alternative is a population transfer of the Arab-Palestinians to the territories the Arab countries confiscated from the Jewish people and settle this dispute once and for all. Many Arab leaders had suggested these solutions over the years.