Thursday, May 7, 2015

The rights of the Jewish people to the Land of Israel - B.Z

The rights of the Jewish people to the Land of Israel
Canadian citizens for the sake of Israel's legal rights) Aklzm"i (
The rights of the Jewish people to the Land of Israel) Zaia"i (leads the reader to a journey
Encompassing three thousand years: the historic connection of the Jewish people to the Land
Israel; Revival of national aspirations embodied in the Zionist movement
Modern; Recognition of their collective rights in international law-nationalism;
And malicious violation of these rights during the British Mandate - up
The announcement of the creation of Israel as the State of the Jewish people.
In the conclusion, a number of issues presented by the distinction between myth
Fact. These issues continue to place obstacles obstructing the exit
The political reality of the Arab-Israeli conflict - the way to a just peace
And sustainable region.
This book is structured to provide the reader with a gradual breakdown level:
▪ The essence of historical events and key documents-legal
Some pages served chronologically with brief explanations.
▪ The Then came the extension of this agreement depth review of
These documents and events.
▪ The last, notes and references include more than connectivity
Internet relevant, trusted sources.
Zaia"i is our response to implantation of the peace process concepts "such as
"Occupation", "land for peace" and The solution to the two countries "- hinting all
The purchase of land questionable) if not illegal (by the Jewish people,
And consequently deny the legitimate rights of the Jewish people to the Land
Israel, the rights enshrined in international law.
We hope that this report will be those who believe in supremacy of the facts
Compared opinions and legends, and these protagonists daily with outbreaks of anti-
Zionism - the academic world, in political circles and in the media.
Canadian citizens for the sake of Israel's legal rights) Aklzm"i (
I would like to express my gratitude to Mr. Howard Grief - lawyer and notary
Jerusalem, Israel - the exhaustive work of legal rights
Israel, have tapped her work in getting this book.
Attorney Howard Grief is the author of The Legal Foundation and Borders of Israel under International Law) "Legal secret and borders
Of Israel under international law "(. The book was published in 7002
By removing from Jerusalem. Mr. Griff also authored several articles
Published on various sites on the Internet in recent years.
Although the book have been used in the preparation of many other sources - as evidenced by
Connectivity expressed comments and documents are accessible on the Internet - section about
Israel's legal rights under international law rests primarily
The outgoing work-to the exclusion of attorney Howard Grief, also kindly agreed
Read your handwriting, and spared no effort in providing and comments concerning
Matter, and which I thank him.
I would also like to express my sincere appreciation to Sir Martin Gilbert, with
Managed Hliftmctbim helpful, and knowledge-based insights
Churchill exhaustive and British politics in the critical period following the
First World War.
Last but not least, I pay tribute to Dr. Jacques Gaotiih, a lawyer living in Toronto,
Research has dedicated many years legal rights of the Jewish people
Jerusalem. He submitted his findings in a comprehensive thesis, Sovereignty over the Old City of Jerusalem: A Study of the Historical, Religious, Political and Legal Aspects of the Question of the Old City
) "Sovereignty over the Old City of Jerusalem: the study of the historical aspects,
Religious, political and legal aspects of the question of the Old City "(.
Solomon will sing
Canadian citizens for the sake of Israel's legal rights) Aklzm"i (
Table of Contents
The rights of the Jewish people to the Land of Israel
The source of Israel's legal rights, recognition and Violation
Canadian citizens for the sake of Israel's legal rights) Aklzm"i (ii
First-up, Goldie Steiner iii
Introduction iv
Acknowledgements v vi Contents
Extract: historical events, documents and chronology
1 Introduction
Part 1 source of Israel's legal rights 3
Part 2: Land of Israel) Palestine (British Mandate period
From 0270 to 0292 7
Israel: anything country from 1948 to 1945: 9
Review depth) Part 1)
Ancient Israel
0711-277 BC 11
277-373 BC 14
373 BC - 21 AD 16
19 historical context
The advent of modern Zionism 22
Ottoman Empire 24
The Balfour Declaration 26
"Fourteen Points" Wilson 29
Paris Peace Conference - 0101 31
Basic alliance of the League of Nations 35
Canadian citizens for the sake of Israel's legal rights) Aklzm"i (
San Remo: 38 milestone
San Remo and International Law 42
The Franco-British 44
The creation of Transjordan 47
Transjordan: legal and political questions 50
Mandate for Israel:
52 Principles
Areas and communities 53
"Distribution" First 57
Legal validity 61
Summary 64
Anglo-American Convention 65
Review depth) Part 2)
Eretz Israel) Palestine (British Mandate period
67 Hiikrft Committee
Churchill White Paper 69
Shaw Commission and Hope-Simpson Report 71
Passfield White Paper of 74
Peel - Woodhead Commission 76
MacDonald White Paper 80
Jewish immigration 83
UN partition resolution: Resolution No. 080 85
Language and legend 89
Some Thoughts on peace 91

A summary of historical events, documents
And chronology
▪ The Introduction
▪ The part 1 source of Israel's legal rights
▪ The part 2 of Eretz Israel) Palestine (British Mandate period

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Canadian citizens for the sake of Israel's legal rights) Aklzm"i (
No political issue in recent times disfigured disfigured in facts
The facts related to the Arab-Israeli conflict. Ideas, fantasies and propaganda
Managed to obfuscate the facts relating to what is known today as the conflict
This book focuses on the legal rights of the Jewish people to the Land of Israel:
• The historical roots;
• The recognition of the key documents of modern international law;
• The scope and their range of provisions;
• The violations of the rights of the Jewish land of Israel during the British Mandate;
• The arguments about Israel's rights in recent decades; And
• The effect is supposed to be these rights in any negotiations to achieve
A just and sustainable region.
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Canadian citizens for the sake of Israel's legal rights) Aklzm"i (
In recent decades, not much has been said about the legal rights of
The State of Israel, and sometimes completely ignored. When the process began
In 0229 Oslo peace - Israel sincerely hoped that he could - interest
Israel's legal rights even more memorable.
In response to a waiver of Israel's many other Btorh peace, Arabs reacted
Land of Israel kept escalating requirements. They also wove Network
0 consists of legends which have been - an unexpected way and unintelligible -
Their embrace of broad sectors of the media, academia, NGOs and halls
Western government. Each culture has its own infrastructure of legends and icons,
And fantasies fabricated by the Arabs of Israel were directed toward two goals
TOTAL: delegitimization of the Jewish presence in the Land of Israel and demonization
The nation-state of the Jewish people.
After more than forty years of Palestinian-Arab propaganda, damaged its image
Of the State of Israel on the world stage. We can not ignore the strength of
Imaginings. However, it seems that fantasy and fairy tales that are so clearly
Facing facts that can not be refuted - they can not hold on
In the long run.
In 0271, concluded the High Commissioner to Israel-Israel paragraph of the intensity
Legal rights of the Jewish people to the Land of Israel. He stated:
"The Balfour Declaration was supported at the time of its publication by several governments
Allied. It was confirmed again by the Conference of Allied
San Remo major in 0171. She then supported by
Various resolutions adopted in both houses of the US Congress; it
Mandate enshrined in the Land of Israel was approved by the League of Nations
In 0277; In the same year established by the Minister of Colonies
'There is no formal policy statement is subject to change' ... policy
Established and approved international approval. "
Israel's legal rights - submitted below in summary -
Are the most loyal factual evidence dispelling the imagination intended dovish
Undermine the legitimacy of the Jewish state.
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Canadian citizens for the sake of Israel's legal rights) Aklzm"i (
The most fundamental right of Israel is ancient history
Its long - since the first settlement of the country to the twelve tribes
Israel, around 0700 BC, to the destruction of the Second Temple in
20 CE. At the end of this period of continuous Jewish presence in the Land of national
Israel - including, for extended periods of Jewish sovereignty - came more
Eighteen years of diaspora to the emergence of the movement
Politics of modern Jewish nationalism, is the Zionist movement.
Zionism was born in a practical way when Theodor Herzl published Der Judenstaat the "Jewish state" following his presence at the trial of
Captain Alfred Dreyfus in Paris. Herzl understood that the "liberation of the Jews
Europe promised as part of the liberal conceptions of revolution
French - did not erase deep-rooted anti-Semitism in
First Zionist Congress - which was held in Basel Switzerland, 72
August 0222 - Herzl in his capacity as president, he and his friends
The program will lead to the re-establishment of a Jewish state in Israel. Area
It was known at the time C"flstinh "was then part of the Empire
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Canadian citizens for the sake of Israel's legal rights) Aklzm"i (
Ottoman, which clarifies why Herzl avoided explicit mention of "Country
Jewish state. "At the beginning of World War I in 0201 - Bertha
Alliance with the German Empire - was limited to the Middle East,
Including - the Land of Israel.
During World War I, conducted extensive diplomatic activity
The British, French, Russians, Arabs from the area in the Arabian Peninsula
Called Hijaz and Jews. The parties signed many agreements - confidential
More and less secret. The Balfour Declaration explicitly stated its intention of
UK to establish a "national home for the Jewish people in the Land of Israel". This statement
Referred to the Zionist Organization through Lord Lionel Rothschild.
Ten months before the end of the First World War, then President of the United States,
Woodrow Wilson, the most important speech in Congress, known as the four speech
Ten points. With his speech, the president spoke thanks to the creation of "association
General of nations "; he expressed his opposition to the secret art, and stressed
The importance of the right of self-determination of peoples. Although many
The ideas of President Wilson were not included in the Treaty of Versailles - the US has
Not ratified - is able to actually setting up the "League of Nations"), League of Nations (to the adoption of the Declaration of Basic - States -'s boyfriend
And Bhotzatn secret art outlawed.
Peace Conference held in Paris in 0202, the first issue
The conference agenda was the establishment of the League of Nations. Declaration of the High-Basic
Which was supposed to operate new international institution Article 77 renewed ballet
The concept of mandates: Peoples released during the conflict newly
Ends - the great powers must not become those colonies, but should
Help them to reach full sovereignty through the Trust Limited
- In which will be placed in control of the area by the mandatory power
Advanced economically. While art determined the future status
European countries signed near Paris, dividing the territories held Previous button
So by the Ottoman Empire in the Middle East conference set precisely
San Remo Peace.
71 April 0270, adopted "The San Remo" - that granted
Britain two seats, the Mandate for Israel and the mandate for Mesopotamia
) Today, Iraq (and France was given the mandate for Syria), who later shared
Syria and Lebanon (. The decision included the wording of the Balfour Declaration,
And gave Britain the legal responsibility for its implementation. The decision was adopted
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By the Supreme Council of the Allied main), United Kingdom, France,
Italy and Japan (which had a legal authority for the first time in history
Has become the Land of Israel - "Palestine" - a legal entity subject to trial
International, which is intended to make the entire National Home of the Jewish people. "
Although the boundaries of the Jewish land of Israel was not clearly determined in San Remo, was
Of course, occupy the two banks of the Jordan River will extend north-south direction
"Dan to Barsba", according to the precedent of the Kingdom of Israel Hhistorit-
The borders of the Land of Israel, set forth in Franco-British Boundary later
More than in 0270. User Sanremo regard to Israel-Israel Treaty included
Sevres in August 0270. This Convention, which was signed by the Turkish Sultan, not
Ratified by the new Turkish government Kamal Attorc
Signed in 0279 the Treaty of Lausanne, which were not included in these instructions,
Because they did not touch the final status of Turkey, while the mandate for Palestine
Israel has been formally approved.
During the discussions of the annual peace conference in San Remo and final approval
A mandate for Israel in July 0277, exchanged the World
Zionist British government several drafts of the Mandate. However, until
Mandate submitted to the Council of the League of Nations final and won its approval,
Reduced land of Israel's Jewish west bank of the Jordan River.
Mandate for Israel and ultimately approved by the fifty-two
Member States of the League of Nations.
Starting in 0277, contributed to the events of blurring or Ldiloln
Territorial rights of the Jewish people in the Land of Israel. The British handed
The Golan Heights to Syria, a French mandate given. Appointed a special body
To mark boundaries, to determine the final borders of the Land of Israel, but
Final borders are not really risen in line with the decisions included
The Franco-British - to the detriment of Jewish Eretz Israel.
Last but not least, the British cut off part of Palestine on the east side
Of the Jordan River, and suspended the implementation of the right of Jewish settlement
Organized there, which is guaranteed in Article 6 of the Mandate for Palestine
Israel. Britain passed into the hands of the Emir Abdullah Hijazi
Management of East Land of Israel, and thus initiated the transformation of this area,
Under the mandate, a separate entity called "Transjordan" which won independence
In 0216, and was reappointed "The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan" at a later date
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The British decision to cut off the Trans-Jordan from the rest of the Land of Israel was due
Partially desire of the British curry favor with Arab leaders. After
French expelled the King Faisal from Damascus in -0270, Faisal's brother,
Abdullah, recruited a small force in order to fight against the French Hejaz Syria.
However, the British stopped him halfway, he was allowed to stay in Amman,
Faisal and transferred to Baghdad where he became the king of Iraq. September
0277 began to Transjordan and the rest of the Land of Israel separated.
While the United States was not a League of Nations, but the government sought
Maintain the rights of US citizens and commercial interests
Area. To this end the United States and Britain made a treaty in 0271 - Convention
Anglo-American about the Land of Israel - including verbatim the full
The wording of the mandate, and that the US was committed to the provisions of the mandate.
This Convention is considered a contract between the two countries and should therefore be seen as a "trial
State top "in the US - and this in accordance with Article 6 of the Constitution of the United States.
The documents mentioned above - San Remo Resolution, the Mandate for Israel,
The Franco-British and Anglo-American Convention on the matter
Land of Israel - are documents of international law, and as such deserves
Will be central in any discussion regarding the Arab-Israeli conflict. Instructions
Arising from these documents has never been canceled. The rights granted to the people
Jews to the Land of Israel remains in force to this day. Unfortunately heart,
They hardly - if ever - mentioned in the media and academic circles. Not allowed
Around them during the ongoing peace process.
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Canadian citizens for the sake of Israel's legal rights) Aklzm"i (
There is no doubt that the British Government after another, began his government's
Lloyd George in 0270, tried their best to cover, block or break the
Legal rights of the Jewish people in Eretz Israel - the rights that they had to
Preserve and promote international commitment received as part of the United Kingdom
Mandatory itself as the land of Israel.
As of the date preceding the little convergence peace conference in San Remo, move
Things repeated over and over again devastating results:
Arab riots - often originate calls cheerleading
Violent behavior out of the Mufti of Jerusalem, Hajj Amin al-Husseini,
Nor, as the head of the Supreme Muslim Council - led to the establishment of a Committee
British probe, whose recommendations have been implemented in the White Paper "redefined the
British policy. These successive White Papers systematically restricted
Jewish rights to the Land of Israel Mandate.
In twenty years from the date of preparation of the Conference of San Remo distorted Jewish rights
Legitimacy Land of Israel beyond imagination. Arguably, the responsibility
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Canadian citizens for the sake of Israel's legal rights) Aklzm"i (
British erosion of Jewish rights is bordered on the criminal, especially Saudi
World War II and the early years after the Holocaust.
Look at this sequence of "White Papers" clarifies that Britain had exceeded its authority
Legal Land of Israel. She acted as sovereign as she had only
Mandatory superpower authority, the faithful and guide. These powers were granted
First Britain by Allied major peace conference in San
Remo when delivered to Britain the Mandate for Israel, and Puerto writing
Mandate was subsequently approved by the League of Nations.
Unfortunately, the Permanent Mandates Commission, whose role is to oversee
Activities of the British Mandatory power, rarely responded
These actions would respond as required.
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In retrospect, one can only imagine how many Jews could have been saved from the horrors
British avoided the Holocaust while limiting Jewish immigration to Israel-Israel
Gross violation of mandatory obligations superpower.
Interim period of five years set in the White Paper named
McDonald ended in 0211. During the war, only 010,111
Jews came to Israel-Israel, both legally and in an "illegal") on the basis of
British rules (and thus did not fulfill even the cap of 21,000
Immigrants prescribed in that document.
The horror of the Holocaust and its scope is growing amongst many shortly after the war
World War II, but the British insisted on holding the immigration quota
Jewish determined - despite the huge number of Jews in Europe did not
They had nowhere to turn. Lack of flexibility made their opposition to the British
The attack of the Zionists. The blowing up of the King David Hotel in Jerusalem -
British Armed Forces Command - took place shortly before this time.
The private correspondence of Chaim Weizmann reveals that the British were willing to allow
The influx of 000,000 immigrants to Israel-Israel Jews and the repeal of
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MacDonald White Paper, but only if the Jews are dismantled its weapons.
In light of the continuing hostility of the Arabs, this condition is considered unacceptable on-
Zionists fearing the worst case of withdrawal of forces
Following World War II, the British sought to get rid of
Their commitments under the mandate and seek assistance from other institutions,
Especially from the United States. Relying on the findings of the Commission of Inquiry Anglo
American, unanimously condemned the White Paper, demanding that the rise
Immediate 000,000 European Jews to Israel-Israel. However, Party
British Labour Party had just won an election, led by Prime Minister
Clement Attlee, rejected the American proposal on the grounds that the adoption will
Disturbing the peace and breaking everything-all battles. 7
A few months later was included in the program Morrison-Grady Anglo
American Offer a one-time increase of one hundred thousand Jews and the establishment
Federation in Eretz Israel, where the two semi-autonomous regions under
British control over a very limited area for Jews. Both the Arabs and the Jews
Rejected this plan, and President Truman later changed his mind, turned down
Morrison-Grady plan and demanded a "Jewish state viable some from Eretz
Israel suffice it ", despite fierce resistance from within, both from
Foreign and Defense Ministry Americans.
At the beginning of 0212 gave to the United Nations the issue of the Land of Israel,
And in November of the same year adopted. General Assembly Resolution on the distribution
, The Land of Israel. Violence increased between November 0212 and May 0212
And when it was announced the creation of Israel the Arabs started immediately
. Integrated military offensive. The War of Independence ended in 0212
Signed ceasefire agreements with most Arab countries combat.
However, to this day the Arabs reject Israel's right
To exist as a Jewish state.
Part 1
▪ The Ancient Israel
▪ The emergence of modern Zionism
▪ The Ottoman Empire
▪ The Balfour Declaration
▪ The "fourteen points" Wilson
▪ The Paris Peace Conference - 0101
▪ The basic covenant of the League of Nations
▪ The San Remo: milestone
▪ The San Remo and international law
▪ The Treaty of Franco-British Boundary
▪ The creation of Transjordan
▪ The Transjordan: legal and political questions
▪ The mandate for Israel
▪ The Anglo-American Convention

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Note: Some of the dates here do not claim to be accurate,
Especially the end of the previous dates during the reign of Solomon.
Regardless of the changing territorial boundaries
And the ups and downs of Jewish sovereignty sovereignty if
The Land of Israel for generations was a Jewish presence 0
Paved the Land of Israel more than three thousand years. Continuity

Historically it is not only remarkable in light waves
0 pogroms and persecution of genocide; Jewish infections
Undisputed Land of their ancestors is a phenomenon unique
Many historians amazing.
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Hebrews repeats the story of the patriarch Abraham, about -0200 years BC,
When he emigrated to Israel in the Land of the Chaldeans promised. Below we will review the
Jewish history from the time of settlement in the country.
After the Exodus - probably occurred before 0790 BC, and probably 9
During the BC -01 century - the children of Israel crossed the Jordan River from
Middle and conquered the Promised Land under the command of Joshua 0
In about 0711 BC. The relative ease of occupation due
The weakness of Egypt - at that time the Philistines fought -
And the collapse of the Hittite Empire.
The country was divided between the twelve tribes of Israel, and judges) Bee,
Samson, Gideon and more (Turn the authority to maintain adherence to tribes
Each other. The tribes of Reuben, Gad and the half tribe of Manasseh settled east of the river
Jordan. Canaanites, Philistines 1 and hold ruled coastal strip of Gaza, Ashkelon
And Ashdod to Tel Aviv today, as well as the number of forts in the country
In. The Philistines began to use iron in those days, and armor
Brought the defeat of the children of Israel in the stone-guide.
Saul was crowned the first king of Israel in 0171 BCE. It
Continued the war against the Philistines, and fell in the battle of Gilboa space. The situation of
Children of Israel was critical to David, Saul's son-in, finally defeated the
Philistines. David crowned king of Israel around the year 0111 BC,
And during his reign expanded the territory of Israel 1 East by capturing red,
Moab and Ammon, and northward to beyond Damascus) dark gray area map
Above Central (. Philistines and Israel have raised taxes became a protectorate.
King David conquered Jerusalem and made it the capital of his kingdom, and strengthened
Israel's united monarchy. After his death in 161 BC,
His son Solomon came to the throne. 6 Solomon reigned forty years were column
Israel's golden period of relative peace. King Solomon developed the
Economy and art, drive Soldier, signed pacts with neighbors -
Phoenician - built in Jerusalem and the First Temple. 2
The death of Solomon in 177 BC led to increased tensions
The inner kingdom - split. Solomon's son, Rehoboam, became king
The southern part - Judah - while Jeroboam was crowned the northern part -
Israel. Kingdom of Israel was rich kingdom of Judah, but was also
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More exposed to foreign cultural influences and less resistant to invasion
Outside. Schism in the kingdom of Solomon greatly weakened both parts.
Around the year 210 BC, conquered the king of Assyria, Tiglath-Pileser III, the
Northern Kingdom of Israel and its capital city, Samaria, was destroyed in 277
BC and its population was deported. "Ten Lost Tribes" origin
Assyrian invasion; 2 inhabitants of Israel were exiled, as stated, and new populations
Syria and Babylon were to settle the land. Only the southern kingdom of Judah
Remains as a sponsor, including - capital in Jerusalem and the Negev desert section
Is greatly reduced during the seventh century BC.
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At the end of the seventh century BC Assyrian empire disintegrated,
And the new Babylonian empire came to the area between the rivers Euphrates
And the Tigris.
2 Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon conquered Judea and suppressed the last Jewish revolt
In 685 BC, when Jerusalem fell and the temple was destroyed to the ground
On Tisha B'Av, an event that Jews bemoan him to this day in all
Around the world. Jeremiah tells of this incident: "Lamentations dimmed the gold!
Hate good spot! Spill Kadesh blocks all outdoor head! ") Lamentations D: (a.
Reading despair that arises from the Psalms) Klz: A (: "By the rivers of Babylon
There we sat, and wept, remembering Zion "Jewish exile in Babylon) Iraq
Today (was slated to last for sixty years.
During the Babylonian exile, moved the Reds on the eastern side of the Jordan River toward
West, into Judea was now populated door. This area was known then
Named Aidomiah. Despite the tragedy of exile, this period was rich in thought
And Jewish theological work, and some books of the Bible were written apparently
During this period) Kings, part of the Book of Isaiah attributable L"isaiho
The second ", and more (.
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Babylonians conquered quickly by forces led by King Award Hacmnidit
Cyrus II, who supported the return of the Jews to their homeland, began in 831 BC.
Cyrus is praised biblical literature, and even called the "Messiah." King of Persia
Then, later, Darius I, continued the policy of his predecessor in 655
BC, and allowed to build in Jerusalem Zerubbabel the Second Temple. 21
The late sixth century BC) image shows a second home
After much later expanded by King Herod in
BCE (.
Under the award was a tiny province of Judah pressed the red) Aidomiah (
South Samaria in the north, and enjoy only limited autonomy. All provinces
These were controlled from Damascus, and the king Darius I kept the peace in the region, built
And developed new ways of trading. This tranquil period drew visitors
Greece, Hhlniztzih begin a process that would overcome the occupation of
Macedonia led by Alexander the Great in 335 BC 11.
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After the death of Alexander the Great), "The Great" (in 373 BC, the area
Conquered vast East for ten years) only! (Divided between two
His generals, who have each established a dynasty of his own; 07 after struggles
Among them, the Ptolemaic dynasty ruled over the kings of Egypt and the southern region of Anatolia
) Today Turkey (- Occupied blue map the upper left (while
Slabkoas dynasty ruled the vast area stretching from what today Afghanistan
To the Mediterranean) yellow area on the same map (including - the Land of Israel.
New national entities appeared during this period. Nabataean Arabs, mostly
Traders moved Numbers camels, founded their capital in Petra
) Today southern Jordan (while Syria would similarly Tudmor
(Palmyra (not far from Damascus. Seleucid government initiated a policy of
Hlniztzih, 09 and the region has prospered economically - which attracted a strong flow
Language, the philosophy and practices of the pagan Greeks spread throughout the region. Jews
Many Jews adopted Greek names and customs; Gymnasium was built in Jerusalem.
When he entered King Antiochus IV "Epiphanes" Jerusalem, robbed
Treasures and forbade Jewish practices. The priest Mattathias, to the Hasmonean,
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Open rebellion and his son Judah the "Maccabee", with the support of faithful Jews declared
Total war Antiochus and the Hellenist Syrians. Jerusalem was liberated
In 061 BC by Judah Maccabee, 01 cleansed the Temple
) Acts commemorated the annual Hanukkah celebration and lighting of candles - as
Above (.
Later Jerusalem again fell under it - the successor to the
Antiochus, but the temple is not defiled. But the Maccabees) Dynasty
Hasmoneans (continued war, and finally managed to Simon the Maccabee
Free Seleucid power in 010 BC. Area of
Jewish kingdom led by the Hasmonean kings expanded and contracted
And off at that point onwards. At its peak), led by the Hasmonean king,
Alexander Yanai (included kingdom part of the Negev, all of Judea, Samaria,
Almost all the shoreline, and a large area of ​​Transjordan. However,
The kingdom fell victim to internal strife between various religious groups
) The Pharisees and Sadducees (01 and Hellenistic Jews and the traditionalists
Their fathers.
When the Roman conquest led by Pompey in 01 63
BC, began to crumble area Hasmonean kingdom and the kingdom
Itself was subjected to severe internal disputes. Assisted by the Romans, was crowned
In 32 BC, Herod the Great) was born a non-Jew, but a Jew driver
And married a Jewish princess Hasmonean (the king of Judah, and eliminated his opponents
From the Hasmoneans. While governor under the watchful eyes of the Romans, is
Expanded the territory of his kingdom, retained full autonomy in internal affairs,
Renewed the face of the temple in Jerusalem, and led ably balance
Aspirations of different sections of the population - Jews and non-Jews, religious
And Hellenistic.
When Herod died in 1 BC, was divided between his sons. Period
This political and religious controversy, Jesus appeared (H) which most impressed
His followers. This led to a rift widens-and going Judaism and eventually
The emergence of Christianity in the world. During the reign of the last king of the dynasty
Herod - Agrippa II, who was against the Jews in his later years
Power - Restricted Area kingdom in the southern part of Syria, in the West,
Samaria and the rule of law Plains Roman commissioners. Agrippa II survived until
Ca. 000 AD, but the Jewish revolt erupted in 66 AD 06
Eventually led, in 21, the destruction of the Second Temple by
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Titus. Rebellion ended after the fall of Masada courage in 23
In 030 AD the second Jewish revolt was crushed, led by Bar Kochba,
The Hellenistic and Roman emperor Hadrian, who wanted to destroy the people's connection
Jew with his country. He became the city of Jerusalem a Roman colony and called
It "Aelia Capitolina", and the Land of Israel called "Palestine" - the name
Israel's enemies, the Philistines, the ancient, vanished from the stage of history centuries
Many years before. 02
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For over a thousand two hundred years, the Jewish people were present Presence
Collective Land of Israel. Apart from the Babylonian exile brief) about 60 years (
02 Jerusalem was mostly Jewish hands throughout the entire period, without any
Contact borders sway of Israel and Judah different. Home
The Temple in Jerusalem was the center of Jewish national identity.
No power is not controlled in this country for a longer period. When
Romans destroyed the Second Temple in 20 AD, Titus step
A victory parade in Rome, when he presents the temple treasures plundered as
You can see the Arch of Titus, still stands at the entrance to the forum
Rome. Within the booty taken from the temple, the golden lamp-year-old looks
Menorah as she carried by a group of Jewish prisoners of war.
For the second longest period of exile, the Jewish community in
Dwell in the land now called "Palestine" and was under the control of
A series of foreign rulers: Romans, Byzantines, Persians Hssnidim, Arabs,
The Crusaders, Mamelukes and the Ottoman Turks. However, for all generations
These have not lost a moment Diaspora their connection to the land
By their fathers hope to return.
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) Aklzm"i (citizens of Canada for the sake of Israel's legal rights
Emotional and spiritual connection to Israel-Israel this found expression both at the individual level) R.
Judah Halevi, in the twelfth century; Rabbi Joseph Caro, who joined the Jewish community
Safed existing middle of the sixteenth century (and collective level, through
Plan a few prominent Jews viewed the Jewish communities whether they are consistent
) Don Joseph Nasi, who founded the active support of the Turkish Sultan receiver
Sixteenth century Tiberias Jews, following the persecution of the Jews from Spain (.
Individual Jewish increases to Israel-Israel lasted until the nineteenth century, when entrepreneur Sir
Montefiore around 0210 proposals organized political Zionism,
And his example was followed Hess in 0267, Leo Pinsker in 0227) Author
The booklet "auto-emancipation" (and Lovers of Zion movement - which led initiatives
The establishment of new Jewish settlements in the Land of Israel during the Thirty Years'
Years of the nineteenth century, such as Rosh Pina, Petah Tikva, Rishon Lezion,
And Neve Tzedek. The return of the Jews to Israel-Israel also won the support of grades
Christian, like William Blackstone raised hundreds of prominent Americans regard
Zionist Following the severe pogroms that occurred in Russia and you went half
One million Jews from Russia in the late nineteenth century. At the beginning of the twentieth century
Lived in Eretz Israel tens of thousands of Jews.
Jewish people deprived of their national home for a period of more than one thousand eight
Centuries - until the international community recognized the historical connection
. Between the people and its land deep peace conference held in San Remo in 0270
Re-construction of the national home of the Jewish people then anchored trial
International Sacred loyalty of civilization ", in accordance with
Mandates System adopted by the League of Nations. In less than thirty
Year, on 01 May 0212, announced a renewed nation of the State
Modern Jewish Israel.
Danish symbol of Israel appears that a lamp in front
Temple, a double hexagon foundation. Could it be more appropriate symbol
National continuity ?!
However, like Hadrian's attempt to erase the Jewish connection
To Israel by the so called it "Palestine", so immersed in Arab Palestine
Israel's denial today that ridiculous facts regarding Jerusalem
Last case of "historical correction" took place in May 7002 -00, when the kadi
Muslim Palestinian Authority's chief, Sheikh Taysir al-Tamimi,
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) Aklzm"i (citizens of Canada for the sake of Israel's legal rights
Pope embarrassed when his presence vilely slandered, Notre Dame center
Jerusalem, Israel. 02 A few months later, he announced that
Tamimi: "Jerusalem is Arab and Islamic, and it has always been
So ... there is no evidence that Jews had contact or even presence
Jerusalem or that ever existed claimed their temple. "
How could it be any reconciliation between peoples, when distorted with malice
Such extreme historical facts?
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) Aklzm"i (citizens of Canada for the sake of Israel's legal rights
02 Dreyfus affair shocked the political establishment of the Republic
France in the late third century -91. Alfred Dreyfus, a Jewish captain
A young French army, was accused of illegally transferring military secrets to the Germans.
In 9911 he was convicted at the end of a show trial, motivated by
Growing anti-Semitism large sectors of French society; He edited
A military court in Military School) "Ecole Militiir" (in 9911 and is
Demoted, and sent to Devil's Island in French Guiana to please the prison
Soon the French company was divided between supporters and opponents of Dreyfus,
And the controversy sometimes bordered on violence. However, many cases of injustice
Clear legal immigrants also voices of saints was shaken. Famous
Among these was Emile Zola, well-known writer, was seething in the face of anti-Semitism
Of the outstanding French army, despite being a highly respected institution. Zola wrote
Article spicy bold titled "J'accuse!" 70, published in the daily
L'aoror at -09 January 0222, and was referred to the French President Felix Faure.
Hoping to mobilize public opinion in France, accused openly cheaper
Senior military officers, and suggested to the court to prosecute the removal
Defamation - as he is convinced that the truth side. Indeed, the French authorities claimed
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) Aklzm"i (citizens of Canada for the sake of Israel's legal rights
It tried and condemned even 77 to one year in prison, but he escaped to England
And remained there until June 0222, when developments were already in favor of
After the retrial ended in a conviction once again, Dreyfus wins in the end
In 0206 by the Supreme Court in France, and was awarded the
Honor. But it took 22 years before the French Defense Ministry admitted,
On 2 September 0221, that binds 'us army' against Dreyfus.
Theodor) Theodore (Herzl, an Austrian Jew 79, wrote a Viennese newspaper, was
To actually injustice, and was shocked to legal cases and sickle
Anti-Semitism arose in France, their homeland of human rights
The universality. His conclusion was the liberation of the Jews ") H"amnsiftzih" (
And equal status as citizens, officially anchored in French law, are not
But fiction. 71 He understood the need to establish a Jewish state, and published
. The Jewish state in 0226 71
Although preceded Herzl few visionaries - especially, Hess, author
The book "Rome and Jerusalem" - Guest book "The Jewish State" deep hearts
The Jews of Europe and led to the convening of the Congress in Basle first
On 72 August, 0222. The Zionist Organization was established - later, the World
Zionist Organization - and Herzl was elected president; And states that "the aim of Zionism
She found a home for the Jewish people in the Land of Israel whose existence is assured
Law. "76
At the beginning of the twentieth century, Jews were in a difficult situation as a result of
The growing anti-Semitism in Europe. In 0209 was held in Kishinev
) Moldova today (pogrom threat. These dire circumstances considered Herzl
The possibility of setting up in Uganda, with the support of the British, a temporary refuge for Jews.
However, the Seventh Zionist Congress in 0201 rejected the plan.
One event - the Dreyfus affair - affected unexpectedly on
Human history. Two people with courage and determination exceptions
The rule - Emile Zola, an ardent defender of truth, even against superior forces
Many, and Theodor Herzl, a visionary who was also a man of action
He understood the plight of European Jews and mobilize world Jewry
Build what is now the Jewish state of Israel.
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) Aklzm"i (citizens of Canada for the sake of Israel's legal rights
Over three centuries, the Ottoman Turks expanded their purview 02
Tiny Asia Minor that contained the Middle East, the Balkans,
Some Central Europe and a wide swath of North Africa, until stalled
At the gates of Vienna in 9891. For 012 years, the Ottomans lost
All assets in Europe and North Africa.
When the First World War, when she joined the superpowers
Centre) Germany, Austria-Hungary and Bulgaria (circled Empire
Only Ottoman Asia Minor and what is known today in the Middle East
Syria, the Land of Israel, Mesopotamia and the western part of the Arabian Peninsula
So-called Hijaz 72) The area marked in red on the map above (.
Allies - particularly the United Kingdom, together with the contribution of the Jewish Brigade -
Defeated the Ottoman Turks during the war. British forces,
Under General Allenby entered Jerusalem in 0202, after four
Hundreds of years of Turkish control. 72
Interestingly, the fall of Jerusalem during Chanukah occurred in December 0202, and Force
The situation in the British issued a previous mark the fall of Jerusalem, when
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) Aklzm"i (citizens of Canada for the sake of Israel's legal rights
Seleucide defeated by Judah Maccabee, 7027 years before that -
Specified event to this day Hanukkah.
The legal machinery for the treatment of Turkey's Middle East assets
Paris Peace Conference was established in January 0202, and distribution
These areas of practical peace conference set
. Having met in April 0270 in San Remo
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) Aklzm"i (citizens of Canada for the sake of Israel's legal rights
Chaim Weizmann and Winston Churchill first met in 2218. During the
First World War, Churchill, played the role of those days
First Lord of the Admiralty, Minister of the Navy, commissioned Weizmann develop
Atz'ton process to produce large scale, so that it will be used for manufacturing
Navy explosives. Weizmann succeeded in his mission this, and since the two men had a close relationship.
However, no consideration was decided in motion thanks to British support
Zionist Eretz Israel.
In 0202, the British sought to keep Russia Alongside cost
States in the war and increase the US war effort. Jews -
Even those who lived in Russia and those living in the US - supported the move
Zionist. Britain sought to attract the Jewish side by Application
A positive policy towards Zionism, hoping that the Jews could affect
The policies of these two powers, especially when the Germans also tried
In 0202 to enlist Jewish support by adopting a positive attitude towards
Zionist program. On 7 November 0202, published by Lord Arthur James
Balfour, the British Foreign Secretary, the Balfour Declaration, 90 unequivocal expression
British support at the national Land of Israel for the Jewish people ", as filed
The first Zionist Congress in Basel in 0222 26. Please note that Balfour
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) Aklzm"i (citizens of Canada for the sake of Israel's legal rights
And Churchill, as well as Prime Minister Lloyd George, personally sympathized with the program
The Balfour Declaration was merely a memorandum of intent reflecting the policy
British in those days. Less than three years after its publication, it has become
Document of international law, when its provisions are adopted at the
Peace convened in San Remo) on April 0270 (and became part of its obligations
Of the United Kingdom. Later these provisions enshrined in the mandate for the Land of Israel
July) 0277 (. In this respect, the Balfour Declaration is a key document supporting
Re-birth of Israel in the Land of Israel. However, opponents
Zionism rushed to satisfy their interpretation of the document and pointed to three
The following points:
• The statement referred to not as a Jewish state ", but the House homeland
Jewish ";
• The concept of "Eretz Israel" is not identical to the concept of "all the land of Israel";
• The term "non-Jewish communities in the Land of Israel," referring to the Arab people.
Misunderstandings and these plantations are unfounded and refuted most of them:
• The explicit term "state" Zionist drafters did not use the
No statement in 0202 explicitly used the term "state" in order to avoid
Stir the anger of the British government. However, there was no foundation
Their concern is, no record of cabinet meetings which brought Balfour
Subject show that the British actually envisioned a Jewish state at the moment
You reach the Jewish population of the Land of Israel to a reasonable level. Even
French shared this understanding. Moreover, the mere use of the word
"National" reveals the true intention. Following a number of White Papers
British) specifically, the White Paper since 0292, named

McDonald's (and the erosion of the rights of Jews in the Land of Israel, the Zionists adopted
Finally, the Biltmore Program 90 May 0217, when the clear intent Ein
Every establishment of a sovereign Jewish state in the Land of Israel.
• The phrase "Land of Israel") in Palestine (Palestine has always been understood, that '
Israel "and not just part of it. It was being confirmed many cases
When my country Israel "appears in the official version of the Mandate for Israel,
Cases that do not leave any doubt about the integrity of the territory, especially
Article 1 Mandate: "No area of ​​the Land of Israel will not be released ...
Any foreign power. "
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) Aklzm"i (citizens of Canada for the sake of Israel's legal rights
• The French gave one of their concerns was the welfare of the expression
Christian communities living in the Land of Israel) Catholics, Maronites,
Coptic, Anglican, Orthodox and others (. These communities and
Muslim communities refers to the Balfour Declaration, and the Arabs as
"With". This becomes clear when you consider that the rights in question are
Individual rights, not collective could be such as to provide the Seller
Arab people, over-yes, San Remo resolution in 10) April
0270 (its French style reminiscent of the "religious communities
Variance ") les différentes communautés religieuses.)
Furthermore, in order to curb any anti-Jewish movement in Europe or even
Possible charges of dual loyalty) as suggested anti-Zionist Jews
Some (the Balfour Declaration included a directive to protect the "rights and status
Political Jews enjoy them in any other country ".
Despite the explicit wording, were the first British reinterpret
For them the Balfour Declaration to the detriment of the Jewish people, from the White Paper
Named after Churchill published in 0277 - a White Paper has reduced the
The territory of the Land of Israel and later led to the establishment of Trans
Jordan - to the White Paper named McDonald) 0292 (which almost rejected
Fully the rights of the Jewish people was the British mole conservative.
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) Aklzm"i (citizens of Canada for the sake of Israel's legal rights
Even though many members of the Republican Party belittled him for
His stubborn pacifism and due to social policies, remains President Woodrow
Wilson among the most respected American politicians. His idealism
And his pursuit of peace prevented him from joining the war effort of the girls
States in April 0202, many German provocation. At the end of
War, he became a prominent architect of Peacemaking Versailles. Orientation
Not to compromise meant that the United States did not join the League of Nations,
Wilson helped constructing the road, but he expressed his worldview after
World War speech "fourteen points" in his 97, which bore
Before a joint session of both houses of Congress on January 2, 0202. While
Britain and France refused to accept some of these points in the final formulation of
Versailles peace treaty signed with Germany, but Wilson's speech left
An indelible impression on many peoples and national aspirations.
These principles of Wilson were based on the release of peoples, a just settlement of
Admissibility and the establishment of the League of Nations.
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) Aklzm"i (citizens of Canada for the sake of Israel's legal rights
Point 0: Wilson demanded "Peace Art Postcards" European powers
Oppose them. During the First World War and even before the wording Number
Secret agreements, such as the Sykes-Picot Agreement of 0206 99 divided the Middle
Tertiary British and French control, Russian participation. Later
More tried to Italy to join this program under an agreement Jean de Moraine -
Never implemented. These arrangements, promoted by European countries,
Came to perpetuate the policies of imperialist ambitions
The main colonial - and these perceptions that Wilson to end.
Point 0: emphasizing the "interests of the populations
Involvement "in resolving territorial questions arising from the results of War
World, promoted by President Wilson to the new mandate system - designed
In the first place by the South African statesman Jan Smuts Christian 91
And is expressed later in Article 77 of the Basic alliance's 10 member
Nations - and breathed hope into the sails of the Zionists, the no-state solution
Others, such as the Kurds and Armenians. Usually refer to this point
Using the term "self-determination of nations", an idea based - although
Either explicitly - the right of certain populations on the historical lands.
Point 01: Wilson's vision concerning "general association of nations" Translated
The actual establishment of the League of Nations 91 years later, we're certifying body of
Mandate system. The US never joined the League of Nations.
Those three points was particularly influential on the fate
Zionism and the renewal of the Jewish nation in the Land of Israel
Led this movement.

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) Aklzm"i (citizens of Canada for the sake of Israel's legal rights
A few days before the opening of the Paris Peace Conference, signed 96 lives
Weizmann) Head of Delegation to Israel-Israel Zionist (and Emir Faisal) named
His father, Sheriff Hussein ibn Ali, the King of Hijaz (the Agreement promised 92
Cooperation between the Arabs and the Zionists and the mass immigration of Jews to the Land
Israel. Emir Faisal gave his consent to the Balfour Declaration, however, at the bottom
Written agreement added a handwritten note linking the observance of the agreement
The establishment of an Arab state on the territory former Turkish territories
Region, as promised earlier by the British correspondence between Hussein
And McMahon. 92
More than thirty countries will be presented at the peace conference in Paris, but the stage
Central was seen by the US, Britain and France. Opening Conference
Peace on 02 January 0202 was an exciting moment. Four empires collapsed
During the previous four years - the German Empire, the Empire
Austro-Hungarian Empire, Czarist Russia and the Ottoman Empire - and the mission
Gathered at the conference was re-shape the map of Europe, the Middle
East and some parts of colonial Africa.
This goal was achieved ultimately through a series of art:
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) Aklzm"i (citizens of Canada for the sake of Israel's legal rights
• The Treaty of Versailles, 72 June 0202, reduced the German Empire
Weimar Republic's borders;
• The Treaty of Saint-Germain, 00 September 0202, the Austrian cared about;
• The Convention Neville, 72 November 0202, established the status of Bulgaria,
Which was given earlier Turkish domination;
• The Treaty of Trianon, June 1, 0270, Hungary recognized as a sovereign state;
• The 00 August 0270, following the San Remo Peace Conference, the Treaty of Sevres, 92
Has defined the status of previously-held territories so by
Turks in the Middle East. However, the new Turkish leader, Kemal
Attorc, refused to ratify the treaty, which passed and repairs
And was reformulated Treaty of Lausanne of July 71 0279. The trouble is, as stated
Above, when the Lausanne Treaty was signed and there was no need to refer
The status of the land of Israel because the mandate for the Land of Israel has been approved
By the League of Nations.
Paris Peace Conference was the first topic on the agenda

Paris Peace Conference was the first topic on the agenda Creating a friend
11 nationalities) according to the recommendations of President Wilson's Fourteen Points "
(And the Soviet drafting its foundation 10.
On 90 January 0202, Turkey has lost its sovereignty - in fact, if not
In theory - the carpet of the Middle East, sovereignty transferred to countries
Allied towards more care in those areas subject to the system
Mandates newly formed, according to the decision Smuts, 17 prior
Article 77 of the basic covenant of the League of Nations. The expectation of decision
Smuts was that the Land of Israel - before drawing its borders - will be
The national home of the Jewish people.
Note: The question of the date of the legal loss of the Turkish sovereignty
Turkish territories in the Middle East scholars are divided in their opinions:
Attorney Howard Grief 19 claims with conviction, that the decision about abortion
As early as 90 January 0202 Paris Peace Conference, because that the Soviet
The foundation of the League of Nations relates to the interpretation of the Community variance
Once belonged to the Ottoman Empire, "and that the Soviet element -
In particular, Article 77 which - was included in the Treaty of Versailles binding document
Of international law.
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) Aklzm"i (citizens of Canada for the sake of Israel's legal rights
Has the same opinion was Dr. Bernard Joseph, Attorney of
The Jewish Agency for Israel Mandate and author of the book
British Rule in Palestine) British government in Israel,
.) Public Affairs Press, 0212
Among the different opinions will be noted also the opinion of Dr. Jacques Gaotiih, 11
Turkey believes deprived of sovereignty at the San Remo Conference and mind
Arnold D. McNair, who believes took place in "Space sovereignty" over
The period before the allocation of seats to the Treaty of Lausanne), 0279 (when
Turkey officially renounced its territory in the Middle East) Cambridge Law Journal, Volume III.), 0272, No. 7
Emir Faisal was disappointed construction of the mandate system, because the system does not
Immediately the type provided the United Arab state he dreamed, and is
Abandoned his responsibilities towards the Weizmann. 92 years later, when countries
Arab Middle East have gained independence, Weizmann argued with reservations formulated
Emir Feisal she had no longer justified.
The Zionists have submitted their demands at the beginning of February 0202 Peace Conference
Paris) The document was submitted by Lord Rothschild, Nahum Skolob and life
Weitzman (when the important articles which were: 11
• The recognition of the historical Tied "of the Jewish people to Israel-Israel: This is
The basic principle of the legal rights of Jews to the Land of Israel,
And is repeated in all subsequent documents: The San Remo
And mandate for Israel.
• The recognition of the right to "re-establish" the Jewish national home in the Land
Israel, a right derived from the first principle.
• The League of Nations sovereignty over the Land of Israel to be deposited by the British Mandate
Govern the land of Israel.
• The grade boundaries of Eretz Israel) including the eastern bank of the Jordan River
Until the railroad track "Hijaz") led the country from north to Damascus
South (. These limits more or less matched the area of ​​the Kingdom of Israel
Old, "from Dan to Barsba", as reiterated many times Prime
Britain, David Lloyd George) See the red line on the map above (.
However, when approved mandate for Israel in July 0277, ahead of
British and insert the text of the mandate Article 70 - "reject or
Stop "the Jewish settlement east of the Jordan River. September
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) Aklzm"i (citizens of Canada for the sake of Israel's legal rights
0277 League of Nations Council approved a memorandum of much reduced British
The Israel Land area of ​​East by separation
Temporary administrative area called "Transjordan".
The letter referred to Felix Frankfurter, president of the Zionist Organization
America, wrote to Prince Faisal:
"The Arabs, especially the educated among us, seeing deepest sympathy
The Zionist movement. Our delegation here in Paris is very familiar
Proposals submitted yesterday by the Zionist Organization Conference
Peace, and we treat them as moderate and proper "
On the basis of previous assurances given by the victorious Allies
War, Arabs, represented by the Emir Feisal, demanded independence -
As part Konfdrtibit - all Arab countries in Asia, but Faisal denied
Territorial demands could not contain the Land of Israel. To figure out
The better the true situation in the Middle East, initiated by President Wilson first
The establishment of an international commission of inquiry eventually became
American committee, and King Commission Crane. 16 members of the committee visited the area in
0202. Her findings have not been published officially appeared in the media only after three
Years after the adoption of the Lodge-Fish Resolution 12 pro-Zionist by Congress
US. Commission King Crane opposed the establishment of a Jewish homeland in the Land
Israel - a position rejected by the Commission's advisers years - but the President
Wilson supported the borders proposed by Weizmann and Sokolow and continued to encourage
Active in the Zionist program.
The British response, on the other hand, the Zionist proposals was mixed, even though
The most senior representatives - Lloyd George and Lord James Balfour Former -
Sided with them. The French, however, strongly opposed the northern boundary lines.
Paris Peace Conference, was not received any official decision regarding
Demands submitted by the Zionist delegation, most representatives of the Allies
"Treated them sympathetically" In general, according to Chaim Weizmann. Although
Proposed boundaries encountered considerable resistance in some cases,
Demands were finally accepted and became recognized rights under international law
A year later at the San Remo. Aafi"c, shortly after the conference in San Remo,
Growing Arab opposition and British duplicity rights Play
These step by step.
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) Aklzm"i (citizens of Canada for the sake of Israel's legal rights
. Basic alliance of the League of Nations 10 included in the Treaty of Versailles in June 0202
Soviet adopted a number of amendments at later dates - until 0271
- But none of them was related to Article 77 (see below). In addition to
Setting organization and working procedures of the member, twenty-six articles of States
Focus on peace and relationships of respect "between nations; The supremacy of law
International) accompanied by the establishment of a permanent Court of International Justice (and the respect for
Obligations enshrined in.
Article 77 explicitly discussed using newly formulated mandates, in order to
Promote the "safety and developing" nations "who can not stand still
On their own. "This goal was considered important enough to feature" loyalty
Sacred civilization ", and accompanied her commitment on the part of" peoples
Advanced ", acting on behalf of C"matzmot mandatory League."
It was expected that after the "mentoring" of nations will be able to beneficiaries mandate
Get to self-determination, as envisioned Fourteen Points "of
President Wilson.
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) Aklzm"i (citizens of Canada for the sake of Israel's legal rights
Article 77 defines three types of mandates, as everything depends on the stage of development
Of the population in question. These three types are generally referred
'Grade A "," Type B "A kind C."
Class A mandates were issued for those areas that were considered developed if
Allow their populations to manage their own affairs within a short time.
These areas included the areas of the Ottoman Empire in the Middle East in the past.
Three seats of this type have been formulated by the Principal Allied countries:
Mesopotamia and the Land of Israel) given to the UK (and Syria) provided
France (. However, the mandate for Israel is considered to be one of a kind) sui generis)
For reasons Slfirotn See note below.
Class B mandates were given for the less developed areas in central Africa.
Six seats of this kind were given to Belgium) on what the end of a long process
Crystallized countries Rooandh and Burundi (UK) stage that today Tanzania (and
A combination of British and French mandates parts of Cameroon and Togo) Togo today
And Benin (.
C-type seats were set aside for smaller areas, remote and sparsely population
South-West Africa and the South Pacific Islands. These areas
Were to "operate under the laws of the mandatory Power, parts
Integral territory ", the condition will preserve the interests of the population
Hmkomitl. Five seats of this kind were given to Japan) on certain islands
Pacific (South Africa) in what is now Namibia (, Australia
) On New Guinea (and New Zealand) on Western Samoa (.
Mandate system was supposed to address the Armenians and the Kurds. However,
Later developments such as the rise to power of Kemal Ataturk
Turkey and the political interests of France and Britain, held back the process
Realization of national aspirations of these peoples.
Note: It is often said, that since the mandate for the Land of Israel is a mandate
Type A, applies to what is said in Article 77 of the Basic alliance
League of Nations: "the desire of these communities must be a central consideration
The selection of the Mandatory power. "Opponents of Israel
Say, the will of "the indigenous Arab population" of Palestine
Israel had to overcome, so the Zionist plan was Blti-
Illegal and constituted a violation of the basic alliance of the member.
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) Aklzm"i (citizens of Canada for the sake of Israel's legal rights
This interpretation does not stand up to close scrutiny. This is because Article 77
States: "In any event mandatory, the Mandatory file
Council an annual report with reference to the care provided. " Powers
San Remo agreement adopted the Balfour Declaration, and the result - Mandate
The Land of Israel - was approved by 17 of the League of Nations. Member
League of Nations Permanent Mandates Commission were fully aware of the nature
Special Mandate for Israel. It is absurd to claim that a friend
Nations, knowingly and willingly violated the basic alliance itself. What
Really obtained by the Mandate for Israel was the Sabbath
Jewish native country - which it was expelled and exiled hundreds
Many years. The League of Nations had achieved this result citing a "connection
The Jewish people's historical immigrated to Israel and the basis for rehabilitation of the
National home in this country, "as the Preamble explicitly
Mandate for Israel. Moreover, the intention of the drafters of the mandate
Eretz Israel is revealed above all precisely Sevres Treaty Article 21
) See Note 39).
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) Aklzm"i (citizens of Canada for the sake of Israel's legal rights
The conference opened on 02 April 0270 Dbcan villa, in the resort town
San Remo on the Italian Riviera, under the auspices of the Supreme Council of
Principal Allied Powers) victors of World War II
First (. The last two days) and 71 April 71 (has been dedicated to the treatment
Former Turkish territories in the Middle East. 12
Peace Conference in San Remo 12 and 10 the final decision adopted by the superpowers
April 71 agreement are essential elements in understanding the political situation
The contemporary Middle East. 10
For the first time more than 0200 years was known geographical area
C"flstin "since Roman times legal entity. Although the boundaries
"Palestine" is not defined precisely in San Remo, the dominant intention was to bring
Them as much as possible the biblical borders of the kingdoms of Judah and Israel
Prejudices. In this context, gave British Prime Minister David Lloyd
George, the phrase "from Dan to Beersheba", a phrase that appeared most documents
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) Aklzm"i (citizens of Canada for the sake of Israel's legal rights
Eliminated all previous agreements among the major powers on the treatment
Former Turkish territories in the Middle East - particularly noteworthy in this context
He Sykes-Picot Agreement 99 from 0206 between France and Britain - and replaced
The San Remo directives, 10 are based on the mandate system in accordance with
Article 77 of the Basic Testament League. 10 "openness" This new
International Relations won Honorable mention Fourteen Points "
President Wilson.
The San Remo by repeating the words of the Balfour Declaration of November 0202 -
Which until then was merely expressing the foreign policy of the United Kingdom,
Although several other countries have expressed their support for it - and strengthened
Tongue, and that I attached to Article 77 of the Basic alliance member
League, The San Remo - adopted by the Entente
Main - the Balfour Declaration became international law document.
He won a national home of the Jewish people, to be set up anew in the Land
Israel, international recognition, and this principle was the central element of the Mandate
The Land of Israel that can be used as a power Britain to mandatory.
, Based on the concept of 'self-determination' promoted by President Wilson in 0202
Won the legal sovereignty of the Jewish people to the Land of Israel, based on the relationship
His historic to Israel, despite this sovereignty could not be realized for all
Mandate period. These legal rights to the land of Israel were special people
Jewish national reforms made within the framework of mandate system. United Kingdom
Took on a triple role: (a mandatory superpower, achieve
The establishment of a Jewish national home in conditions of political, administrative
And economic merit; (B trustee, to preserve the whole land in trust for the people
Jewish; And (c counselor, guide the Jewish people towards independence
Through institutions of self-government. Legal sovereignty over the Land of Israel
Thus, the Allies moved - after the denial of the rights of Turkey
Paris Peace Conference a year earlier - the Jewish people.
Transfer of ownership and sovereignty over the Land of Israel and the Jewish people can not be
Cancel. No action on the part of the League of Nations or the United Nations
Nations - the organization who had succeeded boyfriend in 0211 - no
Could alter this decision. In this context, reflect on the legality of
Resolution 020 of the UN General Assembly), "Partition Plan"
November 0212 (which sought to reduce decisive extent the rights
Territoriality of the Jewish people in the Land of Israel.
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) Aklzm"i (citizens of Canada for the sake of Israel's legal rights
The San Remo is included in the Treaty of Sevres of August 17, 0270. Despite signing
This Convention by representatives of the Turkish Sultan, she never ratified by
The new Turkish government headed by Kamal Attorc. Later
Replaced the Treaty of Sevres Treaty of Lausanne), 0279 (but the provisions of the San
Remo binding under international law. Interest in the Land of Israel sits
Prior to 0279 when the approved mandate for Israel July) 0277 (and therefore not
Mentioned in the Treaty of Lausanne. Furthermore, therefore, never put Kemal Ataturk,
The new Turkish leader, any claim relating to areas in the Middle East
Which were once part of the Ottoman Empire, because all concerned was subject
Maintaining the territorial integrity of Anatolia), Asia Minor (and space
Turkey in Europe.
At the same time the Jewish national rights in the Land of Israel gave the San
Remo equal national rights of Arabs, 19 are in Syria) Subject mandate
French, which included Lebanon (and Mesopotamia) Today, Iraq, subject
British mandate (in addition to the Arab state had already existed in some
West of the Arabian Peninsula.
Beyond that the decision of San Remo Peace Conference aspirations fulfilled
Jewish national) Zionism (the conference also marked the end of the
The longest period of colonization in history. While Powers
Foreign extending the period of their colonization in Africa, Asia and two
Americas for a period of not more than 100 years, the Land of Israel was
Pickled and given a series of colonization by foreign powers for more
From 0200 years - the Romans, Byzantines, Persians Hssnidim, Arabs,
The Crusaders, Mamelukes and Turks. One might expect that the release of this has
Song Glory colonization will actually radial "progress" that act
Traditionally against all forms of imperialism.
You can also load, the San Remo marked the liberation of the Jewish minority
The oldest in the Land of Israel under Islamic control - with Jewish immigrants
Who fled or were expelled later from Arab and Muslim countries - the burden of government
Dhimmitude 11 imposed on them the status of second-class citizens in Muslim countries.
Unilateral violation of this regime Dhimmitude) claim it legal contract
Requiring non-Muslim populations, as determined by the caliph
Omar in the seventh century AD, in accordance write the Koran, Surah "Al
Taube "; 2:72 (sometimes mentioned as an explanation for the ongoing Islamic hostility
Toward Israel.
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) Aklzm"i (citizens of Canada for the sake of Israel's legal rights
Due to reservations of Italy - whose economic interests
Its special in southwest Anatolia) Turkish province of Antalya (
Still not settled to the satisfaction - and the insistence of the US
Approve the draft Mandate prior approval by the Board
The League of Nations, it took a further two years until the mandate approved
Land of Israel since the date of its submission to the Council in December 0270 by
Lord Balfour. This unfortunate delay in opening a long series of violations
San Remo principles set out - to the detriment of the Jewish people.
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) Aklzm"i (citizens of Canada for the sake of Israel's legal rights
This diagram summarizes the relationship between the decision and San Remo
International law 10
Paris Peace Conference convened at the initiative of the Supreme Council of
Principal Allied Powers, created the League of Nations, on the basis of wishes
President Wilson. Basic alliance of the League of Nations included the method
Section 77 mandates, thus reflecting the principle of 'self-determination'
President Wilson sought to promote the Four ten points in his.
Peace Conference held in San Remo, the method used to mandates
Redraw the map of the Middle East, which until then ruled by the Turks
The Ottomans. The San Remo Resolution 10, adopted on 71 April 0270 by
The Supreme Council of the Principal Allied Powers, given binding force
Balfour Declaration - which until then was only an expression of British policy
- And drowned in an international seal of approval. The San Remo Resolution gave the people
Jewish sovereignty over the Land of Israel, and the Arabs she gave rights
Syria and Mesopotamia parallel. 53 must therefore recognize that legitimacy
Of today's Arab states - Syria, Iraq and Lebanon) created
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) Aklzm"i (citizens of Canada for the sake of Israel's legal rights
As part of the French Mandate of Syria (derived from the same source sentence
International re-established Jewish nation in the Land of Israel.
In July 0277, two years after the San Remo decision on the mandate approved
Land of Israel by the Council of the League of Nations, and later approved unanimously on-
17 Member States by the League of Nations.
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) Aklzm"i (citizens of Canada for the sake of Israel's legal rights
After giving mandates to Britain and France in the Peace Conference held in San
Remo in April 0270, it was necessary to determine the boundaries, especially between Palestine
Israel, under the British Mandate and the French Mandate in Syria subordinate.
A year earlier, the Paris Peace Conference convened, the borders of Eretz Israel
Proposed by the Zionists was accepted by the Emir Feisal, President
Hamirkni Woodrow Wilson, the officials of the French and British administration. Everyone
Agreed in principle to the formula "from Dan to Beersheba", which reflected the extent
Historical land of Israel - more or less according to the red line on the map
Including on the right.
However, shortly afterwards, back in the new French government
Led by Alexander Milrnd undertaking of Georges Clemenceau and insisted
Live the Sykes-Picot Agreement had 99 since 0206 expire; they
Demanded the area south of the Litani River), now in southern Lebanon (and the
Sources of the Jordan River on Mount Hermon. We should note that the Sykes-Picot dead
Death kiss after several were combined ten points 'Four' of the President
Wilson) in particular, points 0 and 01 (the Treaty of Versailles, 11 and The San Remo
Gave the mandate to the UK and France.
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) Aklzm"i (citizens of Canada for the sake of Israel's legal rights
Parties negotiated for several months until they reached the borders Convention
French-British, 16 finally signed in December 0270, and although it
Should have to be submitted to the Council of the League of Nations, as provided for in Article
02 Treaty of Versailles, assumed that it was actually confirmed by the Council when
OK mandate for Israel in July 0277. Northern borders of Palestine
Israel, as set out in the Convention, crossed the Sea of ​​Galilee and limited the part
Palestine Golan Heights in the northwestern part) blue line on the map (.
The Convention ordered highlight in detail the border area itself, a task
Which was to be made by a committee marking the border. 12 The final report
The Commission was submitted in February 0277, and introduced a Newcomb-Paula) line
Green on the map above (: Remove the entire Golan Heights from Israel and the mandate included
Syria, and the entire Kinneret included in the Land of Israel, even though the beach
North of the lake was only a few yards from the Syrian border. Line Niokom-
Paula deviated significantly from the provisions of the Convention, although Article 7
Convention clearly guided the Commission "to mark the border area
Provided for in Article 0 of the surface area of ​​the French Mandate Mandate
British. "
Regardless of the changes that took place on the northern border of the Land of Israel,
The eastern boundary remains unchanged the Franco-British,
And the term "Transjordan" does not appear at all. Hall, the long delay between
Mandate submission of the draft Council in December 0270 and the official approval
A mandate for Israel acted against them in July 0277 of ambition
Territorial Zionists.
This delay a seven-twelve months derived entirely from outsiders: Italy
Suspended the granting of consent to the settlement demands southwest Anatolia;
US delayed the vote of consent mandate to ensure equal rights between
Other foreign citizens), the United States was not a League of Nations (;
There were also a number of internal procedural factors contributed to the delay in the League of Nations.
In any case, the delay could be the temporary separation of administrative and Transjordan 12
By the British in 0270, a move approved by the Council in September boyfriend
0277. Furthermore Therefore, this unexpected delay could be British to give up
In the northwestern part of the Golan Heights to the French Mandate over Syria
Border demarcation agreement) ratified in March 0279 (. Two one-decisions
These side raise a number of complex questions about their legitimacy,
As discussed briefly below:
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) Aklzm"i (citizens of Canada for the sake of Israel's legal rights
Although not formally adopted, the draft mandate last December 0270
Considered a crucial document regarding the rights and obligations of the United Kingdom,
OPERATION as the mandatory Power in the Land of Israel. Determining the boundaries of Palestine
Israel was the sole responsibility of the four Allied Powers
First, the decision explicitly written as Sanremo, the Treaty of Sèvres 92
And the first paragraph of the preamble to the Mandate for Israel. 12 mandate forbade
To provide an area of ​​the Land of Israel to any foreign entity) Section 1 (and is held every change
Must obtain the consent of the Council of the League of Nations) Section 72 (. However,
The changes led to the commission marking the border in 0277, approved in 0279, accounted for
Violation of these provisions because the mandate of the Council for final approval can only
In 0291, at the request of the United Kingdom.

In any case, the Franco-British, together with
The San Remo Resolution and the Mandate for Israel, are the documents
Crucial international law, governing the rights of the people
Jews to the Land of Israel, as mentioned earlier-so the Balfour Declaration.
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) Aklzm "i (citizens of Canada for the sake of Israel's legal rights
Note: Even though the administrative and temporary disconnection of Transjordan
Eretz Israel officially endorsed by the Council of the League of Nations
In September 0277, a sequence of events that led to this disconnect started
Already in 0270, as can be seen in the table above:
General Syrian Congress, which was founded after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, was
Imbued with nationalistic feelings. Congress opposed our intervention in foreign countries
Arab affairs. Although the League of Nations approved the mandate system,
One of the goals was to give legitimacy to Arab News -
Syria and Mesopotamia - General Syrian Congress adopted the Declaration of Damascus
Unilateral independence under the leadership of Faisal 60, called the king of Syria, including the
Areas of Syria, Lebanon and the Land of Israel) and Transjordan at all these (. Statement
Syrian independence by the Congress purported to put an end to the military occupation
Syria also rejected the initiative Jewish national home in Israel.
This decision was considered illegal even by the United Kingdom and by France,
That military efforts during the First World War are liberated
The Arab lands of Ottoman rule, when the aid was submitted by
The Arabs was minimal. Entente also rejected the peace conference in San
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) Aklzm "i (citizens of Canada for the sake of Israel's legal rights
Remo the General Syrian Congress resolution. The French particularly angry
Congress' decision, against which the mandate received on Syria, and initiated action
Military, under the command of General Gouraud, which led to his expulsion and exile of Faisal
Provisional UK.
Abdullah, Faisal's brother Amir Hijaz, recruited a small army of 7,000
Approximately warriors, and decided to walk north from Mecca to fight against the French
Syria and avenge the expulsion of the Hashemite family. The French and
The British were well aware that Abdullah's move was only
Action appearances, but Churchill, the Colonial Secretary, decided to appease
Hashemite family and allowed Abdullah to continue his journey northward. Within
Abdullah arrived a few months Amman) March 0270 (after overtaken
In fact the entire area between the Dead Sea and the Jordan Valley and the railroad
Hejaz from country to Damascus.
The eastern boundary of this area appears in red on the map above, approximately,
But it also included an address area. This line marked the eastern boundary of Palestine
Mandatory Israel, as proposed by Chaim Weizmann peace conference convened
In Paris in 0202, and in accordance with individual agreements with the British authorities.
However, the Cairo conference organized by Churchill on 02 March 0270, the British claimed
The words "civil and religious rights" that appear in the Balfour Declaration justified
The separation of the "East Palestine"), ie, the Land of Israel east of the river
Jordan (Jewish national home located B"flstinh Bank. "Commentary
It's wrong, "the civil and religious rights") who was not intentional 'Win
Political collectivity "(later omitted and replaced by another lame justification
Founded on a (commitment McMahon 60 October 0201 What 71 b (
Relying on the phrase "land of Israel" appears in the Balfour Declaration; Og (
"Existing local conditions" Transjordan, a phrase inserted Article
71 of the Mandate without precisely defined.
At this point he returned to England and was Faisal Mesopotamia area, where crowned
King of Iraq ".
Prime Minister Lloyd George never liked the idea that the family
Hashemite) Abdullah of Transjordan, and Faisal Mesopotamia (will dominate the field
Bordering the French mandate over Syria. Another conference was convened a few days later
Some Jerusalem, where Abdullah promised not to attack French
Syria in return for the establishment of "district" Transjordan as part of the British Mandate
Land of Israel.
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) Aklzm "i (citizens of Canada for the sake of Israel's legal rights
It could be argued that if the British would firmly against Abdullah as they
French to Faisal, the current situation was different in the Middle East
Completely. However, have a look at the activities of the United Kingdom in 0270 in light
Previous agreements made with Arab Hhasmiim by TE Lawrence 67
) Lawrence of Arabia (Sir Henry McMahon.
Over the next two San Remo Peace Conference to approve the mandate
The Land of Israel, there were three different factors - developments
Political, Arab nationalism and British appeasement policy
Who came to defend their strategic interests in East
East - erode the rights recognized in the international recognition of
The Jewish people in the Land of Israel. However, the rights of Jews
L"flstinh Bank "is not trampled. Not yet ...
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From a purely legal perspective, there is no doubt that the policy in effect
British Middle East during the critical years 0270-0277 violation
Often the number of signed agreements:
• The San Remo Resolution 50 did not include exact indication of the boundaries of the Land of Israel, but
It was understood that it bases the "national home for the Jewish people in the area extending
From north to south Dan to Beersheba ", as Lloyd George and others stressed
Again and again, from west to east on the two banks of the Jordan River.
• The Treaty of Sevres of August 31, 0270 and adopted the document was considered crucial for the
Agreement on the status of the former Ottoman Empire territories East
East. Article 21 of the Convention clearly defines the objectives mandated
Eretz Israel: the establishment of a Jewish national home. This section is intended specifically Land
Israel, in contrast to the other two seats), Syria and Mesopotamia (,
Discussed separately. The fact that not ratified the Treaty of Sevres and was replaced late
Convention, the ear does not change the intent of the international community
The period between 0270 to 0277 regarding to Israel-Israel.
• The Treaty of Franco-British Boundary 63, whose role was to mark the
The boundaries between British and French Mandates does not imply state
Another Arab to be built east of the Land of Israel.
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) Aklzm"i (citizens of Canada for the sake of Israel's legal rights
• The number of drafts of the Mandate were exchanged between the British and the Zionists from 0202
By the end of 0270. Draft Mandate Palestine did not watch last
Israel restricted the west of the Jordan River with "Arab Region" separate.
However, during the discussion in the lower house of the British Parliament 61 June 0270, permanent
Churchill focus on British policy towards reconciliation and friendship also
Turks and Arabs. "Afterwards renovated Churchill's draft mandate
December 0270 to include a clause could be the division of the Land of Israel, and demanded that
S"timna or will be delayed "mass Jewish settlement in the area east
Jordan River, without setting a time frame for the delay. This provision of the Mandate
British policy became official when Churchill published the book
White bears his name in June 0177, and Article 71 was inserted into the final draft of the
Mandate for Israel, as a month later approved by the Council of
The League of Nations. The justification for these measures was given to "local conditions
Existing "seemingly never detailed or explained. In practice, driving measures
Such was the desire to appease the Arabs) for the purposes of strategies (and avoid
Arab reprisals against the French that were liable to jeopardize the balance France
United Kingdom.
After approval of the mandate for Israel in July 0277, the British established
"Temporary administration in Transjordan." Curiously, this decision was approved by the Council
League, despite breaching the spirit of the mandate, as set out in paragraphs 7
And 1 in 0272 gave Britain an agreement Transjordan 61 Legislative Powers
Abdullah of Transjordan, and it went towards the creation of an Arab state
New independent. It was born in the end of May 0216, under the sovereignty
Hashemite, after the British expanded the territory under the authority of the
Abdullah East by adding 60,000 square kilometers to the border with Iraq.
These British decision - received between April 0270, when the appointed decision
San Remo the United Kingdom to be used as a power Mandate in Eretz Israel, from July
0277, as approved mandate for Israel by the Council of the League of Nations -
° an important legal question: Is United Kingdom was authorized to transfer
Third party) Abdullah (the powers received Allies
Chief of the First World War, the powers of the Mandatory power,
The faithful and instructor of the Land of Israel to set up home
Jewish national - powers that were approved later by the proposed member
League of Nations? Is the League itself was authorized to transfer powers
This British?
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) Aklzm"i (citizens of Canada for the sake of Israel's legal rights
Mandate for Israel 66 approved July 71 in London in 0277. Later
It is also approved by the 17 member countries of the League of Nations, and he went
. Into force in 0279
The introduction sets the mood mandate and emphasizes the uniqueness of this mandate, unlike
The rest of the mandates promulgated by the on the Middle East and other regions
Of the world. While the mandate for Israel is considered a Class A mandate, as
Provided for in Article 77 of the basic alliance of 10 of the League of Nations, it was actually
Unique in that its national beneficiary were Jews of the world), then about 01 million
People (rather than local residents. Mandate explicitly states its goal:
The re-establishment of a national home for the Jewish people, based on
The historical connection of the Jews with the Land of Israel) "Palestine" (.
As with any treaty, Resolution, alliance or an international agreement, the introductory clauses are
Usually statements. But in the case of the Mandate for Israel, Article 7
The introduction makes the entire operative part. Therefore, the 72 articles he wrote
The mandate should be interpreted in light of the fundamental statements in the introduction. On the following pages only
Great number of sections will be discussed.
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) Aklzm"i (citizens of Canada for the sake of Israel's legal rights
Articles 1 and 6 are highly relevant to the current political situation in what is called
"Palestinian territories".
Section 1 forms the Land of Israel in the national territory is indivisible 0
Assigned exclusively to the Jewish people) Similar to write the introduction (. However, when
OK mandate in London on 71 July 0277, the British had already severed Trans
62 Jordan from Israel and turned it into an oriental mixed districts at the same time "a separate administration.
This move initiated back in 0270, approved the White Paper "of June Churchill
0277, and was incorporated in Article 71 introduced the draft mandate. Disconnect
This temporary administrative and British side was against the spirit of the San
Remo, 10 Border Treaty between France and Britain, 12 and Draft Mandate
They passed in December 0270 by the Zionists and by the British.
In this context, we can see the separate legal status granted to Transjordan
Violation of British commitment to re-shape the Jewish National Home
Throughout the Land of Israel.
However, Article 1 does not leave any room for doubt as to the rest of the Land of Israel,
That is, the area west of the Jordan River. Hence, we can conclude that the mere pushing of
Israel to give up any part of Judea and Samaria), the so-called jargon
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) Aklzm"i (citizens of Canada for the sake of Israel's legal rights
Media "West Bank" (as part of any peace Plan "
Under consideration at this time is clearly damaging the rights of the Jewish people.
This statement finds bolstered by the fact that 20% of the historical heritage
The Jewish people are in this area. Giving up such a vital area would leave
Israel has but little justification, historical and cultural reasons, continued
The validity of the other rights recognized territory. Strategic Threats
Were created with such a withdrawal certainly endanger the security of the
Article 6 deals with the Jewish settlement in Eretz Israel. Since the purpose of the foundation
The mandate was to establish a "Jewish national home" in the Land of Israel, and since there
The possibility to realize this intention without a large Jewish population, Naturally
The mandatory Power (UK) "shall facilitate Jewish immigration ... and encouraging
Close settlement by Jews in Israel. "However, the UK has failed completely
Position obligations. As provided for in Article 71 of the Mandate,
Mass Jewish settlement and organized temporarily postponed Transjordan, and rejection
It continues to this day. Moreover, between 0277 to 0292, came Series
The "white book" British and systematically reduced Jewish immigration,
Primarily to pander to the Arabs - but to no avail. Despite these limitations, there
Praising the British for allowing the immigration of some four hundred
Twenty thousand Jews during the early years of the Mandate period. Although
It should be noted that the severe restrictions imposed by the British, especially
The critical years of the Nazi regime in Germany nearly tipped the country
Representing the Jewish way clear neglect of duty superpower mandatory.
Article 6 also relates to the confusion of those days against the "Jewish settlements
West Bank, "which many people call them" illegal. "A short summary
The following will clarify the main aspects of this issue:
0.0 The use of the word "settlement" in the mouths of enemies and detractors of
The State of Israel, to describe the Israeli communities built in Judea
And Samaria - he seeks to discredit. 62 has to imply that not only
Jews "foreign residents" are - and that has ignored more than 760
Arab villages were built in the region since 0262), compared to only 010
Built by the Jews (. It should be remembered that Arafat himself was born
Egypt, the Palestinian Sisters and many new "are in the area. Nickname
The new Jewish communities only an obstacle to peace "indicates
Certainly biased approach.
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) Aklzm"i (citizens of Canada for the sake of Israel's legal rights
7. The main opposition groups and supporters of the Palestinian-Israeli-deniers
Based on a misinterpretation of Article 11 of the Fourth Geneva Convention 62
Determining an occupying military power "will not] force [part
Its population into occupied territory. "Even the International Court of Justice
Justice advisory opinion produced in July 7001 against building the "fence"
This referred to the Geneva Convention and expressed the opinion S"hiisobim
Israeli occupied Palestinian territory), including East Jerusalem (been established
In violation of international law. "20
Nothing could be further from the truth:
A (j much room to doubt that if at all possible to apply the Geneva Convention here
Fourth, for those "Jewish settlements" are not in the zones
Occupied. "This fact first noticed Professor Eugene Rostow, lawyer
Known in the field of international law and former sub-secretary
US State for Foreign Affairs: "How can I apply this Convention
Jews who already have a legal right protected by Article 22 of the
The UN Charter to live in the West Bank, East Jerusalem and Gaza
Gaza has not been explained. "For Rostov Jewish right to settle
Every area of ​​what was once British Mandate Palestine "can not be
Legally appeal. "20
(B fasted with the idea of ​​occupation "that marketers false Arab narrative
Eretz Israel is the shaky foundation upon which any exceptions based
The alleged Israeli international law and reason who preserve
The concept of "occupation" living and breathing for granted: The legitimacy of
The State of Israel as a whole is undermined, because there is no distinction at all between
. Liberated territories by Israel in the 0212 and 0262 wars
The legitimacy of Israeli rule over the whole earth is derived exclusively
International law.
(C of Israel never "gave power") act is prohibited under Article 12
The Fourth Geneva Convention (any Jews liberated areas
. Foreign occupation to self-defense in the War of 0262
D (A to Geneva Convention binds the parties, in this case - Jordan
And the Palestinian entity) is not a state (but Jordan was never
Legal sovereignty "West Bank" and actually even waived
. Sovereignty has been alleged in 0222
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) Aklzm"i (citizens of Canada for the sake of Israel's legal rights
(E instructive to compare the demand of the Arabs of Israel to dismantle all settlement
Jewish - Demand ethnic cleansing "- a reality where the population
Israel's Arab constituting about 70 percent of the population
State and enjoy full equality.
And (a claim of the absurdity of the world choir, which communities are
"Obstacle to peace" can only be compared with the return free-thinking
Which characterizes the discipline. For twenty years prior to the construction
Yishuv "the first Jew in the liberated areas there was no peace,
Arab violence against Jews and Israel played every day the headlines
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) Aklzm"i (citizens of Canada for the sake of Israel's legal rights
Already in 0202 - a year before the peace conference in San Remo - Start
Scores preparing drafts of the Mandate filed by British authorities.
December 0270 draft eventually adopted by the British cabinet
And submitted to the League Council to approve it. There were twenty-seven
Sections, and final approval was rejected by a number of external factors, including:
Italy's opposition claiming their rights due to the south Anatolia
And the fact that the Treaty of Sevres 92 not ratified; The negotiations surrounding the determination
The borders of the Land of Israel; Their advance north of the Emir Abdullah
And fighters to avenge the ousting his brother Faisal by the French; And in particular,
The repeated insistence of the US administration to review any draft before
Giving consent.
To stem the armed introduction of Abdullah, a show that never came
Promoted real intention to attack the French, and to appease the Arabs complaints
And the violence of the Arabs in Israel, Churchill issued a "Book
White "in June 0277. This British Open steadily eroded policy
And other territorial rights of the Jewish people in the Land of Israel
During the Mandate period.
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) Aklzm"i (citizens of Canada for the sake of Israel's legal rights
When finally approved the mandate for the Land of Israel in London in July 0277
) And subsequently approved by the entire League of Nations (British had already
Mandate insert another section, is Article 71, which became official
The actual separation of Transjordan and prevented any mass Jewish settlement
And organized east of the Jordan River.
Preventing Jews so-called first "Eastern Eretz Israel"
) And subsequent heard I went through the Jordan "and finally" The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan "
Was supposed to be temporary, but it remains in force to this day.
Many observers see the division of "this first of the Land of Israel
Breach of the obligations of the United Kingdom, the mandatory Power, as they were understood
San Remo and a violation of the Franco-British.
However, the map of Eretz Israel / Transjordan shown above is the source protection
Repeated wrong: Often used to say, that all space is displayed
This map, which is about 070,000 square kilometers, was supposed to be intended to
Jewish National San Remo as they thought. True, some of Transjordan -
Which extends north-south along the east bank of the River Jordan River
Yarmuk) east of the sea of ​​Galilee (to the Gulf of Aqaba, a width of between 70 and 10
Km to the Hejaz railway tracks and even beyond it - should be part of
Jewish national home for the following reasons:
• The area is included in the map submitted by the Peace Conference convened grades
Paris, and this claim was considered reasonable by the Emir Feisal, President
Wilson and other representatives of the Allies;
• The San Remo, and during the subsequent period when the wording of the Mandate,
L"flstinh designated area "- the Land of Israel - was meant to reflect the
The historical connection of the Jewish people to Israel, also extends to the east
Jordan River;
• The Treaty of Franco-British Boundary though she knew this part of the
Transjordan as part of the Land of Israel is mandatory so that means
Jewish National Home.
However, there is no reasonable argument about Jewish sovereignty over the entire area of ​​Transjordan
As was expanded to the east by the British in 0271 - to the North border
West of Iraq. To curb the hostility of newly Saudi fighters
Appeared; Provide a secure air corridor between Baghdad and the Mediterranean; And prevent difficulties
Please allow diplomatic mandate as a result of separate Transjordan Author
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) Aklzm"i (citizens of Canada for the sake of Israel's legal rights
League of Nations, the British expanded the western part of Iraq and Trans
Jordan, that separates Syria what would become Saudi
Arabia, while guarding the whole area under a British mandate.
These measures can not be interpreted as an attack on the Jewish national home, despite
British held the combined entity of Palestine / Eretz Israel and Trans
Jordan, subject to that mandate until 0216, when he became Transjordan
Independent Hashemite kingdom. The historical context - a pillar
Critical of Jewish legal rights to the area - never came
Western borders of Mesopotamia, a distance of about 910 kilometers to the east
Jordan River.
However, the legal opinion of the Attorney Howard Grief significantly different at this point.
It states:
"Mandatory Palestine whose territory consists of both the land west of the Jordan
And the area east of the Jordan as finally determined was created with one goal
Only: to build a Jewish national home and future Jewish state
Independent, as foreseen in the decision of San Remo, which was incorporated in the Balfour Declaration
And brought into effect the provisions of Article 77 of the basic alliance member
Nations, for the Jewish people. No area of ​​the land of Palestine was not the committee
In that decision to establish in any Arab country, not in the West Bank
Of Jordan and its eastern bank, and conducted the mandatory Power
Eretz Israel and held it, not a plurality of the country, but only as a trustee of
Jewish people - was not authorized to legally establish such an Arab state, not
Subject to the decision of San Remo and not subject to the Charter of fundamental League,
Nor subject to Article 71 of the mandate itself. Also was not competent
Disclose any "Palestine territory" - subject to Article 1 of the mandate, teaching
Ever occurred even Transjordan, which was never given a mandate
Separate. Therefore, the entire area of ​​Palestine - including Transjordan in its entirety -
Was the uncontested part of the Jewish national home under trial
International, even some Zionist provisions of the Mandate for Palestine
Israel was suspended - but never eliminated; As a result, there were
British unlawfully when permanently severed Transjordan
The land intended to be used as the Jewish people's national, a step which reduced
The area at 22 percent, more than three-quarters of the area determined. As noted
One author, the British made "huge robbery of a Jewish homeland"), William B.
Ziff, The Rape of Palestine, p 002 (. The problem is that it gets robbery
A fait accompli, in part thanks to a partnership-indulgence and collusion of
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) Aklzm"i (citizens of Canada for the sake of Israel's legal rights
The US administration which, as a party to the Mandate for Israel and Saudi provisions,
Must have a clear legal obligation to intervene and partly due to distress and sense
Helplessness of the Jews, feelings prevailed at the time. "
The question of Transjordan in all its complexity must be discussed by lawyers
Scholars, but their deliberations are beyond his occupation of this book
Article 72 prohibits any change in the provisions of the Mandate without the "consent of the Council of
The League of Nations. "The last change was carried mandate Knesset discussed Article 71
Above. No further legal change has not been approved by the member or by
Legal successor, the United Nations - the United Nations. In addition, rights
National exclusivity of the Jewish people to the Land of Israel as described
The Preamble to the mandate approved in paragraph 7 of the same document valid till
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) Aklzm"i (citizens of Canada for the sake of Israel's legal rights
The League of Nations ceased to exist in April 2291, after the organization was set up
The new United Nations) UN (in San Francisco. The UN made
Successor to the League of Nations and many articles of the UN Charter 21 indicate
With regard to Israel-Israel, by perpetuating the rights of "all people," maintains Article
88 of the UN Charter specifically the rights of the Jewish people who have subject
Mandate. Note that when the partition resolution adopted
November 23, 2292 UN Resolution 212, the mandate was still in full force.
Therefore, the recommendation emerging from the Resolution 212 of the UN Charter against it
She asked dramatically affect the nation territorial rights
Win Jewish Land of Israel which mandatory.
The word "people" included in Article 11 of the UN Charter was due largely
Interference from the Jewish Agency preparatory conferences were held in San
Francisco in the spring of 2298. This term clearly meant the Jewish people. Since unknown
Article 11 Clause Palestine ".
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The validity of the mandate for Israel expired with the declaration of the State of Israel at 29
May 2291, but the acquired rights of the beneficiary) Jewish people (not
Be revoked with the demise of the mandatory Power and faithful
(UK). At the end of the Mandate and the declaration of the State of Israel, there is no relevant Section 88
More about the possibility of operation to enforce the trust system) Chapter Twelve
Of the Charter of the United Nations (any part of what was previously the Land of Israel
Mandatory. He maintains relevance by preventing any action on the part of
UN modify the rights and sovereignty of the Jewish people on any part of
. Land of Israel / Palestine, rights preserved under Article 11
Although the mandate itself is not really a treaty, the Vienna Convention on the Law of the art, 29
Adopted in 2212, establishes the legal right of acquired "
Recognized in international law remain in force even after the expiration of
Convention. This law applies to the legal rights of the Jewish people, as drafted
The number of documents since the San Remo Peace Conference in 2211. These rights included
Even the Treaty of Sevres, and not expired despite the fact that the Treaty of Sevres was never
Observers have inadvertently rely on the Vienna Convention when they claim
Arabs have won legal rights will, from the West ". "West Bank"
Defined according to the "green line" drawn in 2292 armistice line finishing
The military hostilities in the War of Independence. No strike agreement
Weapons can not be considered the Convention, especially when taking into account the
The fact that the Arabs themselves have always resisted adoption of the "Green Line" as the border
Last but not least, an important historical precedent demonstrates the ongoing rights of
After the expiration of the peoples mandate issued in their favor. South-West Africa
Was a German colony before World War One. After the defeat
Germany, approved the establishment of the League of Nations mandate to administer the Southwest
Africa, and established the Union of South Africa) Today, the Republic of
South Africa (Mandatory superpower. At the end of World War II
South Africa refused even to consider granting independence to South-West Africa,
And asked her to annex the South-West Africa as a place of another.
After several interventions from the United Nations and the decisions of the Court
International Court of Justice, 28, condemned the presence of South Africa in the south-west
Africa, published in 2222 the Court advisory opinion last step
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That led to independence for South-West Africa, known since 2221
The parallel between Namibia to Israel-Israel see the table below:
Sovereign ago
) Land of Israel
United Kingdom
Israel) 1498
) Germany
South Africa
Namibia) 1448
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This summary highlights the key provisions of the Mandate
As described on the previous pages
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Because the United States did not join the League of Nations, is aimed to ensure the
Rights and the rights of its citizens Mandate in Eretz Israel by signing
Agreement with the United Kingdom. This agreement, signed in December 0271, the United States recognized
British government of Israel in return for these rights.
Two years earlier-so, was adopted unanimously by both houses of the US Congress
A decision known as Fish-decision Lodge, 12 signed by President
Harding. This decision was supported B"hkmto the Land of Israel of national home
Jewish ", and is part of US law to this day. Allow
Argue that signing the Anglo-American Convention of 26 December 0271, Convention
Which included the full text of the mandate, required the US government
Respect the mandate of international law, especially since it
. The Senate approved it and the President Koligd, declared it in 0271
Article 7 of the Treaty gives the United States "all rights" determined mandate,
Especially the right to join the Allied Council of the League of Nations
Accompanied by a superpower, and it was given to the United States to agree to changes made to the right
Mandate or oppose them, considering that according to Article 72 of the mandate
They need unanimous agreement.
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Anglo-American Convention - which is a treaty between the US and Country
Sovereign, the United Kingdom of Great Britain - considered "law
The country's top ", according to Article 6 of the US Constitution. 22
In light of these possible implications of the Treaty are worthy mentioning:
During the period of the British Mandate issued three White Papers reduced
A very large extent the rights of the Jewish people in the Land of Israel as they come
Reflected in the mandate. MacDonald White Paper, published on the eve of 22
World War II, was the most stringent, thus not only forced reduction
Drastically on Jewish immigration at a crucial moment in the history of the Jewish people, but
In fact he even denied the mere intention to mandate that abandoning the idea
The center of "Jewish national home in the Land of Israel". Although Mandates Commission
Fixed - whose role is to oversee the League of Nations on steps
Britain, the mandatory Power - saw MacDonald White Paper
Violation of the mandate, and US President Roosevelt expressed his "sorrow
Deep decisions regarding the British government's policy to Israel
Her Israeli ", the US administration did not respond.
The Convention, together with mandated, expired the day the State of Israel - the 01
May 0212. However, the national rights of the Jewish people in the Land of Israel,
Explicitly recognized both documents, remain in force to this day,
As stated clearly in Article 20 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of the art, 21 Convention
Adopted in 0262. In this context, decisions made recently by
The US administration regarding Israel and the Arabs of Israel make themselves look
Legality, especially in goal - the establishment of "a Palestinian state") as proposed on-
President Bush in 7001 (an area defined mandate, current policies
President Obama, focusing on the factions to cease settlement] Jewish [Improbable
Illegal West Bank. "22
However, the legal aspects and extent of the Anglo-American Convention
They are complex, and many experts are divided about the commitment of
United States to mandate, as described above. For example, some argue that
Britain was committed only to protect American interests
The Land of Israel - and that is indeed stand. However, the United States is precluded
Today legal denial of Jewish legal rights acquired
All the Land of Israel arising mandate. Perhaps, it will be possible to return
Anglo-American Convention in the near future.

Part 2
Eretz Israel) Palestine (British Mandate period
▪ The Commission Hiikrft
▪ The Churchill White Paper
▪ The Shaw Commission and Hope-Simpson Report
▪ The Passfield's White Paper
▪ The Peel Commission - Woodhead Commission
▪ The MacDonald White Paper
▪ The Jewish immigration
▪ The UN partition resolution: Resolution No. 080

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The first Arab riots, which initiated the Mufti, 20 were in Jaffa, weeks
Some prior and San Remo Peace Conference. It turned out that the British did not want it or not
Could protect the Jewish population. As a result, Ze'ev Jabotinsky founded
The "Haganah" in 0270, a self-defense organization that has developed over time
And was the Israel Defense Forces today.
20 Hiikrft Commission found that the Arabs are the attacking side and they are responsible
Most of the casualties. Echoing the way to this day, Arabs spread
False information regarding the Arabs murdered by Jews in Jaffa, "information" that ignited
Violence without any factual verification. The main goal of the Arabs
Was thwarting Jewish immigration to Israel all of Israel, and to do so in any way
The British tried to get their hands on the mufti, but he managed to escape to
Transjordan. The man soon pardoned by the British and returned to his position
Political and religious.
Despite the unequivocal findings of the Commission Hiikrft, were British
To appease the Arabs and used the Jaffa riots to limit immigration
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Jewish. The excuse they used repeatedly had capacity to concern
Economic absorption "of the country. This concept was completely detached from
Reality and often contradicted the facts. Through efforts
Train and develop infrastructure land increased greatly grades "capability
Absorption "of the country. However, nothing could change his interests
Britain's strategic neighboring Arab countries - and it constituted the
Top goal during the mandate period.
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27 published a month before the approval of the mandate), the Churchill White Paper) 0277
The Land of Israel in London, is a milestone in British policy that he
Represents the first deviation from the original meaning of the Balfour Declaration
) Despite British denials (and mandate for Israel not yet been approved.
This White Paper was formulated by the High Commissioner to Israel-Israel eight in 0220, Sir
Herbert Samuel, who declared himself a fan-Zionist Jew.
Despite the promises contained in the legitimacy of the Balfour Declaration,
The San Remo Resolution and the Treaty of Sevres 29) was still in force and waiting
Ratification (; despite the rights of Jews in the Land of Israel said it clearly,
"Having an international guarantee them a promise ... and to formally acknowledge that they
Are rooted in ancient historical connection, "and despite the approval given to development
Prominent Zionist "characterization national lines" the Land of Israel, the White Paper
Churchill went on a practical division of the Land of Israel by the appointment of Abdullah
- Amir Hijaz - as administrator of the territory east of the Jordan River and the removal of
This area of ​​Jewish settlement from the mass as prescribed in section 6
Of the mandate.
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Removal of Transjordan was incorporated into the Jewish National Home in Article 71 of the Mandate
. Land of Israel, as approved by the Council of the League of Nations in July 0277
Despite the statement by Sir Alec Kirkbride cited above) on the need
Deliver to Israel-Israel eastern lands, enough to absorb Settlement
Arabic (it turned out that the separation is permanent, without any "resettlement" as
It is written by him. Initially an Eastern Land of Israel) in Arabic
Exclusive (and Western) with a Jewish minority (there were subject to that mandate.
However, the term "Eastern Eretz Israel" has been replaced over time L"abr-
Jordan ", and in 0271 another about an area of ​​sixty thousand square kilometers, up to the limit
Mesopotamia, to prevent access from Syria) is subject to a French mandate (half stood
Arabia. 21
Most things, the White Paper indicated that British policy is not predicted
A separate Jewish state in the Land of Israel, but only "center where the Jewish people
All he could find of interest and pride, on the basis of ethnicity and religion. "Accordingly, month
The term "economic absorptive capacity" to further restrict according to desire
British Jewish immigration.
Aafi"c, many Zionists, Chaim Weizmann received including the White Paper
Churchill mixed feelings of joy mixed with displeasure. James
De Rothschild, a member of the British Committee for the First Zionist-Israel to Israel,
Preferred Abdullah separate from the rest of the realm of the Land of Israel as a guarantee
The continued existence of the Jewish national home. Sir Martin Gilbert, 21 Expert
Churchill matters known, attaches to the White Paper the power of home building
Jewish National and keeping the Balfour Declaration and the Mandate provisions
Although Churchill considered himself an ardent Zionism ", its White Paper - unlike
Expectations - did not reassure the Arabs and the Zionist enterprise in the Land of opposition
Israel. Other notable Jewish Zionists, such as Justice Louis Brandeis, see
The White Paper as a violation of the spirit of the mandate, not yet approved at the time. This view
It is also of attorney Howard Grief, 19, sees the Churchill White Paper "sign
He was dying of a clear mandate for the Land of Israel "and the source of" interpretation
False precision about the meaning to be attributed to the Jewish National Home
And to determine the obligations and responsibilities under the mandate of the United Kingdom "- as
Question implemented by all subsequent British governments) see
White Papers of Passfield and McDonald (.
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Violent Arab riots broke out again in 0272, which killed more than a hundred
Jews - particularly in Hebron. Many Jews fled the targeted communities.
Investigation committee of four members, headed by Sir Walter Shaw, 26
. Submitted its report in March 0290
Protectors of the Commission Hiikrft) 0270 (Shaw also stated that responsibility
Lies directly on the "racial hostility" by the Arabs against the Jews. However,
Shaw found "root cause" Arab disappointment felt by the leaders
Political; In the absence of the Arab community economic future; And feeling Slat-
Slowly Zionists "with foreign financing sources" taking over another Arab
That, Shaw pointed to the inconsistency alleged British declarations
Previous addressed to both Arabs and Jews, and even revived the concept of
"Dual commitment" of equal importance also to the Arabs and the
The Jews - a concept completely deviating from the provisions of the Mandate, which gave
Explicitly political and national rights only to the Jewish people.
As a result, the British government summoned the expert team of hop
Simpson 22 to assess the "economic absorptive capacity" of the country. Report
Hope-Simpson on "immigration, land settlement and development", published in August
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0290, concluded that there is not enough land in the Land of Israel and the recommended stop
Once the Jewish immigration, claiming that the employment policy of the institutions
Jewish chief responsible for the paucity of Arabs) see point "C"
Later (. Suspension of Jewish immigration was to continue to be developed
Land of Israel more Arabs to be able to adopt new farming methods.
The conclusions of the report Hop-Simson much criticism, both because of contradictions
Its obvious internal and from British and Arab officials:
(A report which was admitted to an Arab immigration into Palestine massive illegal
Israel and surrounding areas visited the British government
Ignoring this problem which has reduced the options granted
Economic of the local Arab population and negatively affected
Chances of new Jewish immigrants.
In (the report also mentioned that the Jews "have paid inflated prices for
Ground and in addition they paid to some holders of these lands amounts
Silver evident that the law did not have to pay. "
(C British Governor of the Sinai from 0277 to 22 0296 results were approved
Arab immigration catastrophic non-controlled into the Land of Israel:
"Illegal immigration is not only continued but also across the Sinai Jordan
And Syria, and it is very difficult to avoid the misery of the Arabs if at the time
One time it was not possible to block the entry of other Arabs
Neighboring countries to participate in this poverty. "Before the outbreak of war
Second World War, Churchill stressed Vinson Not only being persecuted, but
The Arab masses went to Israel and multiplied. "
D (the governor of Syria, Tawfiq al-Hourani Bay acknowledged that for months
Some in 0291 about 90,000 Syrian-Israeli came to Israel. 22 if the rate
Their natural increase was 1.1% annual, explains this emigration wave all day
The population of the city of Nablus, the largest Arab city in Samaria.
(E written about for years Abdullah has been King of Transjordan, in his memoirs:
"It is clear to all, even according to the map prepared by the Simpson Commission and in accordance map
Another portrays the Peel Commission, the Arabs excel in selling land
Just as they excel in tears and complaints pointless. "
And (Qana measure the mass of Arab immigration to illegal gun
And British unwillingness to stop it known to the whole world. In 0292 the town
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US President Roosevelt, who since 0270 that Arab immigration
"Outstripped Jewish immigration during this period."
Despite everything, the British continued to promote anti-Zionist policy immediately
After the publication of Hope-Simpson report, and further restricted Jewish immigration
When published the Passfield White Paper.
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Passfield White Paper of 20 was a significant change in British policy
The Land of Israel. First official document adopted an anti-Zionist and pro-
Arabic decisive, citing distorted the findings of the report Hop
Passfield's White Paper recommended not only reduce further reducing the rise
Jews, but also to limit serious restriction on Jewish ownership
Earth, when the dubious basis for this recommendation is the lack of soil
Agricultural land of Israel, and that - despite considerable efforts - and sellers -
The Zionists to expand the amount of agricultural land and capacity.
Politically, "confirmed" the Passfield White Paper "restart" the book
Previous White, of Churchill, since 0277: it reduced the importance of
"Jewish national home" - for whom the Zionists had a key and was the
The very nature of the mandate for Israel - and emphasized only the Baking
Culture "of existing Jewish communities. This White Paper also spoke in favor of
Britain's equivalent obligations towards the Arabs and the Jews in the Land
Israel, especially when dealing with the allocation of land, ignoring their letter
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And the spirit of the documents requiring various international law since
Balfour Declaration.
The Zionists opposed the unequivocal Passfield's White Paper.
British Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald tried to calm worries
Jewish through a personal letter referred to Chaim Weizmann, which he repeated
British adherence to affirmative mandate "to enable and encourage Jewish immigration
Close settlement by Jews on the land "), Article 6 of the Mandate (but
Refused to cancel the false notion of "dual commitment", which will be implemented
Equally to Arabs and the Jews - was a foreign concept
Mandate, and he also addressed his letter to economic absorptive capacity to "the
Country code means in practice was reduced further Jewish immigration.
Zionists naively believed his promises of Prime Minister Macdonald.
The next decade showed they were misled. In contrast, the Arabs were pleased with limitations
Imposed by the Passfield White Paper. May be interpreted them as a green light
More violent riots against the Jews of Eretz-Israel, who came to riots
. Culminating in what became known as the "Arab Revolt" of 0296-0292 20
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27 Peel Commission published its most comprehensive report following the outbreak
. Called "Arab Revolt" in 0296
Peel Commission report opens summarizing the "problem" and a brief history since
0201. An interesting aspect is the recognition If successful attempt to establish a national home
Jews to Israel-will ask a sufficient number of Jews a national home made
Evolve over time into a Jewish state. "It is important to remember that day, because
Today many are opposed to the true meaning of the phrase "national home
Jew ".
Among the many reasons for an Arab Rebellion ", brings Phil's report has ignited two
0270 Arab riots of violence:
0 (desire of Arab national independence; (7) The hatred of the establishment ("
Jewish National Home and fears him. "
Further analyzes of the report in terms that deserve to be quoted at length
The situation that prevailed then:
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"Jewish national home is no longer an experiment. Population growth
Achieved by political developments, social and economic lines
Determined at the beginning of the process. The main innovation is the development
Municipal and industrial. The contrast between the democratic character of modern 0
And in particular the European National Home and the nature of the Arab world
Surrounding conspicuous. The mood of the house] of the Jewish National [
Nationalist and strong. There is no question of a merger or of emulation among
Jewish culture which is Arabic. National Home can not be
National-half ... the contrast between the educational systems of Jews and Arabs
Especially noticeable Bfsgtn. Jews have a high-level university.
Arabs have no such thing ... "), the emphasis of the author (.
As Arab immigration into the Land of Israel and vacant land, report
Peel puts the record straight - to distort the issue
Day. The report states: "The shortage of land is due not so much from purchase
The Jews that if the increase in the Arab population. Arab claims
As if the Jews obtained Too much fertile land can not be justified.
Large parts of the land are growing them today orchards were Dunes
Swamps and sand or rocky land purchased before "), the emphasis of the author (.
Initially rejected the Peel Commission's comprehensive British principle "absorption capacity
Economic ", and states that it" does not provide "; on the other hand, is determined ceiling
Jewish immigration: 070,111 per year for five years, even though
Recognizing this, every ceiling will be considered too high by the Arabs) while
The activity of the Peel Commission, there were approximately 100,000 Jews (.
The report also notes that the situation of the Arabs greatly improved since 0270, thanks to
Jewish capital, social services and technological progress brought
Grades. However, the Arab and Jewish nationalism heightened "is inadequate
Hope for compromise "and not envy the situation of the United Kingdom" if fulfilled the mandate
The current ".
In formulating its conclusions, the report recognizes that it can only offer "remedies
Analgesic "Because the disease is so deep Lineages convinced the Commission
The only hope is a surgical remedy. "For Committee
Phil, you can not settle with one of Britain's obligations towards
Jews and Arabs, and the only solution is to end the mandate and part of the
Land of Israel.
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Proposed partition borders were distorted: the Jews will remain just Galilee
And the narrow strip of beach to the city of Ashdod today) blue area on the map
Above (; the Arabs would remain contiguous space that includes all the Negev, the strip
Gaza and the West Bank. A corridor will last mapped through the airport
And Jerusalem to Bethlehem will be under British control to keep places
Saints, concern by the British) misconception (it has to respect
The "sacred trust of civilization" referred to in paragraph 77 of the Basic alliance
The League of Nations. This proposal was drastically reduces the area
Land of Israel dreamed up by the participants at the San Remo, and reduced it
To at least 25 percent from the field remaining after severing Transjordan rest
. Land of Israel when the mandate was approved in 0277
The report also added insult to injury and suggested "that the Jewish state will pay compensation
Arab state when the distribution will be made "for" new rights
Jewish sovereignty over the area. "As is clearly to what extent distorted
British Mandate 0 principles according to which transferred sovereignty
Exclusively to the Jewish people by the Supreme Council of the Entente
San Remo main - and no collective Arab group.
The report also addresses the distribution of Arabs and Jews in disputed
Offered. While there were grounds for 7,700,111 Arabs and Jews, there were only
00,701 Jews in Arab territory. This imbalance is considered an obstacle to serious
The best way to implement the division's successful ", and it was suggested that sooner or
Later also carried out an "exchange of populations". To support this proposed program,
Phil report referred to in positive terms following the population exchanges carried out
Turkey-Greece War in 0277 - when 0.2 million people were moved
On the other side - and praised the "courage of the Greek and Turkish politicians
Relevant,] courage [that is justified by the result. "
The 13th Zionist Congress August 71 we will gather in 0292 in Zurich, were
Zionists are well aware of the serious situation of European Jewry in Germany
Nazi. Congress rejected the principle of partition) as contravening commitments
According to international mandate (but in view of the difficult plight and the need to obtain
Painful decisions, members of Congress gathered under the banner of Ben-Gurion
In the hope of establishing in Eretz-Israel the necessary shelter for the Jews of Europe
Threatened. Ultimately, Congress decided "not to accept the plan
The division proposed by the Peel Commission,] but expressed his desire to continue negotiations {
And the provision to clarify the precise nature of the proposed UK Government
The establishment of a Jewish state in Israel. "
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The Arabs rejected the recommendations of the committee and demanded to stop the immigration and building
Jewish national home in the Land of Israel.
Woodhead Commission established after 21 opposed to the idea of ​​partition and continued
Championing the idea of ​​Jewish-Arab agreement. British severely depressed "Revolt
Arab "and dissolved the Supreme Arab Committee convened by the Conference sets.
. James meaningless February 21, 0292
Before that conference also raised the Zionists and the Arabs their claims. Scores
Increased demand increase to help the Jews threatened by Nazi attack
Seemed already on the horizon. The Arabs insisted oppose Jewish immigration
And the principles laid down in the Balfour Declaration. The British government gave up the idea
Distribution to please the Arabs, and put in place the idea
Palestinian state, to convince them to be allies
The expected clash with Germany.
This radical change in British policy effectively put an end to the idea
Mandate that broke the British commitment to the establishment of a national home
Jews in the Land of Israel, which one would realize it only through
An actual increase and an undermined, as prescribed mandate. White book
. McDonald's destructive policy approved in May 0292

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On the eve of World War II, Britain issued a White Paper
McDonald, 26, and destroyed the foreseeable future that the Zionist hopes
Establish a Jewish state in Israel.
MacDonald White Paper envisaged the establishment of a "State of Palestine
Unified "under Arab control) common terms today:" Solving Country
One "(within a period of ten years, a whole area surrounding the beach
The Mediterranean to the Jordan River.
This policy statement violated the United Kingdom's obligations under
• The by abandoning the main purpose of the mandate: the re-establishment of
Jewish national home, ie, an independent Jewish state in any future
Land of Israel.
• The by placing severe restrictions on Jewish immigration violation
. Article 6
• The by taking unilateral measures without the prior consent of the Board
League of Nations -. Violation of Article 72
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The idea of ​​"economic absorptive capacity" Until then penetrated everywhere month to
Of limiting Jewish immigration to 200,111 over the next five years
These and prevent the transfer of Jewish-owned land in various parts of the
Land of Israel. "United State of Palestine" was supposed new
Be controlled by Arabs and Jews alike, according to their population
State, but Jews were forbidden to serve more than one-third
This comprehensive.
No one deluded himself about the fate of the Jewish minority in light of violence
Arabs during the previous two decades and in light of the Arab Council Statement
Top which, while showing courage nationalist, opposed the White Paper
McDonald: "The crucial decision regarding the fate of a dependent on his own wishes,
And carrying white or black. Palestine win independence within the Union
Arab and Arabic will remain forever. "
No wonder that the Zionists were amazed embezzlement at a time when the British trust
Such critical to Europe's Jews. A similar condemnation was voiced by Prime Minister
Britain in the past, Lloyd George, who described the White Paper Acts of Deceit
National will bring, but an honor on behalf of the British. "President Roosevelt expressed
"The grief] on [the British government decisions regarding policy in the Land
Israel ", but the US government has avoided a more active response, which could
Definitely do in light of the provisions of the Anglo-American Convention. Harry Truman,
When he served as a US senator, is also believed, MacDonald White Paper
Is a "denial of British commitments".
Winston Churchill, in a speech delivered a passionate flames of the British House of Commons
On 79 May 0292, sharply criticized the MacDonald White Paper. It
Condemned the clauses Ferdinand and clear repudiation of the Balfour Declaration ", calling the
White Paper the words "another Munich" 22 Beat fatal "Zionists. However, there
Place argue that the seeds of the MacDonald White Paper seed Churchill
When published its White Paper back in 0177. There is also noted that Churchill
Refused to cancel the MacDonald White Paper when its authority was
To do so, as prime minister during World War II.
More sex, the Permanent Mandates Commission, whose role is to oversee
Practical mandatory Power, stated MacDonald White Paper does not
Compatible with the spirit and provisions of the Mandate for Israel, and thus set
The White Paper is illegal, unless you change the Council of the League of Nations
This assertion. However, the Council has not decided the matter: it was supposed to
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To decide on 2 September 0292, but the meeting never took place, because
World War II broke out in September 0.
Britain's strategic goal - to satisfy the
Arab and Muslim world - proved largely false hope
After World War broke out. MacDonald White Paper, the
. All limitations anti-Zionist, remains in effect until May 0118
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The graph above indicates non-regular fluctuations occurred in Jewish immigration
To Israel-Israel during the first twenty years of British rule
. After the Peace Conference held in San Remo in 2211
The flow of Jews to Israel has been stagnant around 20 111 immigrants per year during
Hiikrft Commission action and the Churchill White Paper) 1921-1922 (. Then
So there has been a sharp increase after taken anti-Jewish measures in Poland
And Germany in the 11 middle, and after diving due to severe
The global economic collapse and a severe drought in the land of Israel.
With the rise of the Nazi party in Germany, a significant number of Jews
Central Europe immigrated to Israel-Israel, to the Peel Commission recommended limits
Set new "political ceiling" of 210,111 Jewish immigrants per year,
And the British government has adopted these restrictions in breach of the mandate.
Looks tiny increase in 2232 is due to immigrants who apparently
To Israel-Israel) illegally, according to British rules (as a receiver
Last raged against growing anti-Semitism in Europe.
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MacDonald White Paper of Jewish immigration became impossible
Almost, and the number of immigrants is down to a trickle during the war years
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In 0212 the British put the question of the Land of Israel to the General Assembly
United Nations. The investigation of the situation in the country conducted by the UN Committee
Special Palestine) UNSCOP (marked eyes of the Arabs of Palestine
Killing Jews now above any other consideration ", the General Assembly recommended
UN to partition the land into two states, Israel 22 separate, one
Jewish and one Arab, and Jerusalem area having to special status. All
Arab countries voted against the resolution; Britain was among the abstainers.
Division boundaries were based on demographic considerations, but it was impossible to defend
Their military protection. The proposed Jewish state was nevertheless a minority
Very strong Arab) about 17 percent (. The percentage of Arabs in population grows up
16% on the eve of the War of Independence in 0212 when Jewish forces
Took control of Jaffa. However, only Jews numbered's Population 0.7%
The proposed Arab state, since most Jews were massacred in those areas or
Expelled, and The British restricted Jewish settlement in those areas
During the two decades that preceded the decision. One hundred thousand Jews living
Jerusalem area) area, according to the proposal should have been a separate and control
International (found themselves isolated.
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Canadian citizens for the sake of Israel's legal rights) Aklzm"i (
Although this distorted arrangement, the Zionists received 080 resolution, present
The pressures of post-Holocaust era, when about a quarter of a million Jews left
DP camps in Europe, they had no where to turn. It was obvious that the provision of
The possibility of reaching the ground depended on Arab consent to the decision,
As declared reproductive Abba Hillel Silver, the American representative of the agency
Jewish, to Ed hoc committee "of the United Nations to the question of Eretz Israel in 7
October 0212. But the Arabs rejected the resolution unanimously, as they rejected
Offers previous distribution, only because the proposal included the establishment of a
Judith in what they called "the Arab Middle East." Arabs
Local, represented by the Arab Higher Committee, also rejected the
The decision, arguing that Arabs are "Palestine have the right".
Resolutions of the UN General Assembly resolutions are not binding; implementation depends
Mutual their acceptance by the parties, which has never happened in the case of a decision
020. Aware of Arab violence against Jews in the past, the decision
Included provisions to promote all military aggression will be enabled to "resist
The proposed settlement by force. "Although these provisions Council resolutions predicted
Security, which is part of Chapter VII of the Charter of fundamental
000 United Nations - Decisions may be taxable in case of "threats
Serious about peace. "However, following Arab attacks on the State
In May 0212 the new Israel, "threats to peace" officially recognized, but not
Taken any concrete action on the part of the United Nations, except for serious condemnation and calls
A cease-fire.
Although Resolution 020 thus recognizing the right of Jews to a state in part from Eretz
Israel, Israel's legitimacy is not based Legally
The UN resolution. 22 national rights of the Jewish people to the Land of Israel
M"hksr stem historic "with their country, as recognized in law
International by The San Remo Resolution and the Mandate for Israel. Provisions
Resolution 020 pro, in fact, the Charter of the United Nations Basic 000) in particular,
Article 20 (in that it severely damaged the legal rights of the Jewish people,
Especially in Judea, Samaria, Gaza and above all - Jerusalem.
Furthermore Therefore, a decision 020 violated the provisions of the Mandate for Israel
Another was in full effect, particularly Article 7 - the Land of Israel saw the
Jewish national home - and Article 1, prohibiting divide the land, what
Resolution 020 asked to do - without any legal authority. It is noted that
Mandated international law was in effect for the Land of Israel during the
. Decision 020
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Canadian citizens for the sake of Israel's legal rights) Aklzm"i (
Anyway, after a unanimous Arab rejection and the opening of Arab aggression
Israeli military campaign against the new State, Resolution 080 became a dead letter
No bearing on the situation prevailing now. The ultimate irony is that Arabs are trying
Now revive the decision 020 as part of a Palestinian state with provisional pursuit ".
At the end of the War of Independence were signed armistice agreements
Rhodes first half of 0212, was the territory of the State
Israel slightly more than 70,000 square kilometers, or about 22 percent of the Land of Israel
Bank, much less in relation to the Jewish National Home as
. Limits set out in the Franco-British 16 0270

▪ The language and legend
▪ The few thoughts about peace

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) Aklzm"i (citizens of Canada for the sake of Israel's legal rights
The power of words
To spread the fairy tale invented by the Arabs of Israel and their supporters,
Made a concerted effort to distort reality by using cunning
Language. Proven tradition of "big lie" of Goebbels, faked
The most absurd inventions, which over time it became clear that the Siabo
Thought most effectively.
Some examples of the most popular page lies above. All
• The illegal denial of Jewish presence in Eretz-Israel;
• The creation of "a Palestinian" New, never heard of him, and whose existence
Denied repeatedly by prominent Arab leaders since the early
Fifties of the twentieth century;
• The delete any connection between the Jewish people to Israel his ancestors;
• The removal of defaming the State of Israel through an evil slander and mudslinging;
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) Aklzm"i (citizens of Canada for the sake of Israel's legal rights
• The deployment of Islamic dubious claims originating recent years;
• The justification of violence and terrorism of the Arab liberation struggle
Colonial imperialism.
This last point is particularly important. Is a new rising main theme
Frequent conversations between the Arabs of Israel: "Arab land was stolen by
The Jews who came as strangers from Europe, in coordination with Western imperialism,
Establish colonies in the region. "So most of the representatives of the Arabs of Israel treat
Always occupation "to justify any act of violence carried out against Israel. This term
Omnipresent've dug deep, and were willingly accepted by means
The major media, and often add to it the adjective
"Illegal" illegal occupation.
I never realized the acquired legal rights of the Jewish people
Eretz Israel, 000 in a variety of reasons. The Arabs were to fill this void
Spreading the false notion of "occupied territories illegally" -
And successfully won destructive.
"The illegal occupation of the Palestinian territories" is the cornerstone of
Propaganda of the Arabs of Israel. "Big Lie" of the interlocutors expressed
Yasser Arafat's statement the French weekly "L'Express" in April
0222, when he justified the terrorist attacks against Israel: "We are opposed
Occupation just as they did during the Nazi French. What you've done
You, too, we do. ") The emphasis of the author (.
Deliberate distortions and lies they supply fuel much hostility and violence
Beyond the borders of the region. Have to stop them head to head with facts
Concerning Israel's legal rights - to restore sanity to the discussion
Political. But to do so, it is necessary to listen to the call of Jean
Z'aors, 007 French Socialist leader in the early twentieth century: "Courage
What? To really work and play; Refuse to submit to the law the past lie
And the winner; And play again and again in our thoughts and actions declarations
The fools and cheering crowds incited. "
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) Aklzm"i (citizens of Canada for the sake of Israel's legal rights
What we saw, since the Oslo process began in 0229 is nothing but persecution
"Hello" at all costs. Peace Set single destination, and any other consideration postponed
Aside as not fit to achieve this goal. Under these conditions, there will be no peace
Never more than a temporary cessation of hostilities, based on compromise
Territorial make no sense and without any regard for reality
Geographic, historic, strategic and most importantly - legal. 009
"Hello" This is kind of inherently fragile, as the prevailing social peace
Racial discrimination in South America could not keep up.
Missing element is justice, should be seen as a precondition necessary for peace
Real. The centrality of justice is a solid foundation of Western thought.
Deuteronomy) P: (approx ask that we certainly pursue justice. 001 Thomas Aquinas,
One of the greatest Christian theologians, emphasized that "peace is the outcome
Bypass the work of justice, as justice removes the obstacles
Peace. "001 However, all agreements reached during the so-called" process
Oslo Peace "006 No word" justice "appears almost at all, not an article
Nor in spirit.
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) Aklzm"i (citizens of Canada for the sake of Israel's legal rights
Factual truths are fundamental justice. This is evident in every court
In which the judgment rests on evidence which determine the final settlement.
The same approach should be adopted also appear to be territorial disputes
Solution, such as the Arab-Israeli conflict, there should be facts that are
Can be rebutted replace dubious half-truth and lies
They occupied the absolute position via non-Arab propaganda campaign
Knows no rest. In short, instead of chasing "peace" as a target, should diplomacy
Focus on the facts relating to the area) and in particular, legal rights
Acquired the Jewish people (in order to reach a just settlement of the conflict -
From which we can expect the emergence of a real peace and lasting.
Unfortunately, in recent years, as we see what appears to be a global effort
Erase Israel's legal rights. The power of the media and
Some academic experts assure rods attitudes deletion
Forgotten, 002 at the same time growing and built an alternative reality based
The "Palestinian narrative" newcomer, thanks to the winning class today
Incessant return to its components.
There implore the media to project light on Israel's legal rights
And to inform the public about the events that shaped the foundation at the end of the Middle East
First World War.
We urge statesmen and diplomats stress the central issue of
"Ownership of the land" as a starting point in any negotiation between Arabs
The Israelis.
We are confident that all the issues relating to the status
The non-Jewish population west of the Jordan River Zoo can be so
Peaceful settlement for the benefit of all parties regarding.
Then, and only then, can hope for the coming of lasting peace.
After nearly twenty years-all visible failure of the "process
Peace "ongoing. This process is only exacerbated the points
Emotional debate; Is a distortion of reality; He revived
Old hatreds; And brought us to this impasse. This is the time
A new approach to leave and return to the basic facts, never
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) Aklzm"i (citizens of Canada for the sake of Israel's legal rights
Not loaded convincingly by the governments of Israel,
Deleted negligence by others, had been distorted by many,
And long forgotten. However, to achieve this goal, the recipients
Decisions to show courage and act accordingly.
In the words of Hillel: "If not now, when?" 002

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) Aklzm"i (citizens of Canada for the sake of Israel's legal rights
Palestinian propaganda intended to bring about the delegitimization, demonization and ultimately
Which destroy the State of Israel takes many forms and is beyond the scope of the project
It is. The fundamental aim of this propaganda is to portray Israel as a foreigner holding a
B"flstinh illegal Arab. " Related occupation "was sentenced to another performance of" citizens
Canada's legal rights in Israel. "Unfortunately, the Palestinian Authority
Refers to the formal declarations understanding even the most iniquitous attacks against Israel
And against the Jews. Palestinian Media Watch ( (reported in detail
For many years these remarks.
Other qualified applicant's translations printed and video material in Arabic, Farsi,
Urdu and Turkish, will review reports submitted trusted by the Middle East Media Research Institute ( .)
1, the British Prime Minister, Clement Attlee, also initiated a covert campaign of sabotage in 2291
Operation known as Operation Embarrass, aimed to disturb - often
Violent means - the movement of every ship that carries to Israel-Israel Jewish refugees, as
Recently unveiled by Keith Jeffery) Keith Jeffery (in his MI6: The History of the Secret Intelligence Service 1901-1949. The honorable British historian Andrew
3 3 When it suits the address that appears in the number Mrfnth) Merneptah Stele (which
Non-Biblical reference to the most ancient Israel as a nation. Pharaoh Merneptah is the son of
However, most biblical scholars believe that the exodus from Egypt occurred in the 29th century
BC, and is currently devoting a lot of work this event, when the trustworthiness changes
From job to job. A few examples:
• The Exodus Decoded By The Simcha Jacobovici 0 and review by), WoodBryant G. PhD, Associates for Biblical Research
The Exodus Conspiracy • The Tim Mahoney
(/ (and review by, Kovacs JoeWorldNetDaily: ;
• The Ancient Israel in Sinai by Prof. James K. Hofmair) James K. Hoffmeir (, from Trinity International University:
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) Aklzm"i (citizens of Canada for the sake of Israel's legal rights
9 The Philistines have both M"goii describe the sea "who settled along the southern coast of
The State of Israel today in the thirteenth century BC. Origin from the Mediterranean Basin
East), probably the island Martin (and their name is the source for Palestine - Palestine -
Given to Israel by the Emperor Hadrian in Rome after the victory of Bar Kochba in 238
Palestinian Arabs of today have adopted this name for themselves without addressing the question of the relationship
Historic. In an article published in The Jerusalem Post on 18 November 2228 quoted Sarah
Honig the Golda Meir: "The British decided to call it the country that received the mandate
'Palestine, and the Arabs adopted the so-called ancient name of them, even though they could not
Even pronounce it correctly, and made it L'flstin ', a fictional entity. "See archaeological discovery
New as reported in Haaretz English language:
8 past archaeological finds related to King David:
1 last archaeological finds related to King Solomon.
In conclusion Monarchy of King Solomon, see:
2 Illustrated recovery of various aspects of the temple and other places related
Ancient history of the Jewish people, the Temple Institute (offering a variety displayed. More information
1 details related to the two kingdoms, Israel and Judah, including - Assyrian invasion
And the interim years which survived the kingdom of Judah to the Babylonian exile, are presented in the Jewish Virtual Library:
2 For explanations related to Biblical, Talmudic and others who talk about
Nebuchadnezzar and the destruction of Judah, refer to Encyclopedia Judaica and Bible Encyclopedia
As follows:
Other documents of interest: a commentary on the Babylonian Captivity of Rabbi Ken Spiro:
Conditions before the exile of Judah, exile itself and return to Zion:
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) Aklzm"i (citizens of Canada for the sake of Israel's legal rights
10 historical story since the conquest of Babylon by the Persians led by Cyrus II to
The destruction of the Second Temple in 21 CE, including references to the Bible and other sources, on-
By Lambert Dolphin:
22 jump of the conquests of Alexander the Great and Asia Minor to India:
Alexander's views about Jews and his visit to the Temple in Jerusalem:
21 The Slabkoas and Ptolemaic, dynasties arose following the death of Alexander:
23 relations between Greeks and Jews, see:
And check with the Center for Online Judaic Studies: that has a lot of information.
29 Maccabean revolt sources see:
Toward a Jewish rabbinical: the dispute between the Sadducees and the Pharisees, see the Center for Online Judaic Studies for:
And in the Jewish Virtual Library, in particular in an article by Mitchell Bard:
28 dispute between two boys Hasmonean dynasty brought the Roman occupation of Judea on-
The Roman occupation lasted 18 years, until a new Jewish kingdom was established, headed by Herod
Great in 32 BC.
21 See the full text of the Jewish War Josephus
As well as a short biography of Josephus:
22 After more than 20 311 years of Jewish history in the country, can easily be seen by naming
New to Israel by the Emperor Hadrian in the act of what-it. However, after 20111 years,
Hit the "curse of Hadrian" Israel unexpected way most Arab claims they
"Palestinian people".
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) Aklzm"i (citizens of Canada for the sake of Israel's legal rights
21 The importance of Jerusalem to the Jewish people is beyond dispute: It includes aspects
Religious, historical, spiritual and political, all of which are discussed in numerous books
• The Fight for Jerusalem The) struggle for Jerusalem (by Dore Gold, published
Regnery Publishers Inc.
• The Israeli Rafi) Raphael Israeli (Dan legal rights and the consequences Jerusalem
The Oslo peace process. http: ///
• The Dr. Jacques Gaotiih) Dr. Jacques Gauthier (Canadian lawyer located in Toronto
And an expert in international law, spent many years researching the legal rights
And the history of the Jewish people to Jerusalem, and wrote an extensive thesis on this subject.
His work is accessible online. His thesis has been reviewed by a penalty Hillel Israel National News.)) Channel 2
• The Watch also an interview with 98 Minutes with Dr. Gaotiih the sovereignty of the Jewish people
Jerusalem in CTSTV and the performance-hour International Christian Embassy
. Jerusalem, September 1121
And ) represents the Christian Embassy (
• The short introduction to the history of Jerusalem since the Muslim conquest and religious significance
Jerusalem's comparative Judaism and Islam offered by Daniel Pipes in The Muslim Claim to Jerusalem:
• The summary is written in the history made by the Arabs of Israel to create
Muslim demands fictitious Jerusalem, is fueling requirements, in part, the
Conflict in the region, see The Battle Over Jerusalem and the Temple Mount
By Ricki Hollander:
22 See Haaretz report ") in May 1112 (in connection with Tayseer Al-Tamimi:
See also later statement from Tayseer al-Tamimi August 1112, reporting
Channel 2
11 In conclusion the Dreyfus affair, see: Trial of the Century) sentence century (by person
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) Aklzm"i (citizens of Canada for the sake of Israel's legal rights
12 complete original text of "J'accuse!" ) J'accuse! (Published in the French daily
Daily L'Aurore: 23 January 2121
English translation of the book may be obtained, along with the French original:
11 Note: Emile Zola was not the only shield of Dreyfus. French intellectuals
Many liberals) Anatole France, Henry Foinkarh and others (joined cheap and condemned
The government, the army and the judicial institute on the injustice of their prominent. Jean Z'aors,
Known French socialist, was one of the most influential when he wrote Les preuves: Alfred Dreyfus in 2211. It is interesting how the political courage to defend the truth characterized
At that time the Left in Europe.
13 comprehensive biography of Theodor Herzl, which includes a short video, see the
The report by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs:
19 The opposite view, see "Jews Against Zionism") Jews Against Zionism (Ideas
Central is Zionism and anti-Semitism encouraging traditional Jewish principles as
Expressed by King Solomon, the prophet Jeremiah and sages. The reader free to assess the
Various quotations relevance - or lack their relevance.
See also the eulogy he delivered Israel Zangwill, Herzl's grave on his companion. Remarks
Current ginger, released today especially:
18 You can read the complete English translation of the book by Theodor Herzl, the state
Jewish), The Jewish State (translated into German by Sylvia D'abigdor and was incorporated
By "Midaist Web" with an introduction by me Aisrof.
11 See the First Zionist Congress in Basel and program:
See also: Summary of discussions twelve early Zionist Congresses from 2122 to 2212
12. See: History of the Ottoman Empire from the fall of Constantinople in 2983
11 See the role of the TA Lawrence) Lawrence of Arabia (Arab revolt against the Turks and
Political positions later:
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) Aklzm"i (citizens of Canada for the sake of Israel's legal rights
12: See Military report on the fall of Jerusalem which 2 to 2 December 2222
31 See the full text of the Balfour Declaration, with a comprehensive introduction from me Aisrof:
32 meeting at the Biltmore Hotel in New York on 1-22 May 2291 with the participation of leaders
Zionist Chaim Weizmann, David Ben-Gurion, Nahum Goldmann and others. See the statement issued
On May 22, with an introduction by me Aisrof.
31 See the full text of the speech "Fourteen Points" of President Wilson:
33 See full text and map related to the Sykes-Picot Agreement:
Jan Christiaan Smuts 39 submitted a memorandum in 2222 memo titled "League of Nations: Offer
Practical ") The League of Nations: A Practical Suggestion (discussed mainly by
Mandates, a new idea at the time. President Woodrow Wilson's ideas adopted
Smuts and after several days of heated debates in the peace conference convened
. Paris, Smuts Resolution adopted by the Allies on 31 January 2222
The decision was later used in the formulation of Article 11 of the basic covenant of the League of Nations.
For the full text of the decision Smuts, see: David Hunter Miller, The Drafting of the Covenant. , Pp 212-221
38 Among other problematic issues were discussed before the establishment of the League of Nations, it should be noted fiery debate
The issue of "sovereign equality". See pages 23-11 in the book and the norm of democratic states
Sovereign equality by Kurt Taylor Gaobtz, Stanford University;
31 Peace Conference in Paris) Paris Peace Conference (participants, agenda,
The covenant by it and the policies of the major powers.
See also Margaret MacMillan, Paris 1919: Six Months that changed the world (Random House). Review issues related to the Middle East during the
The Paris Peace Conference, see: Howard M. Sachar, The Emergence of the Middle East: 1914-1924 (Knopf, 1969).
32 text of the agreement and the Weizmann-Faisal, dated 3 January 2222, including
Faisal's reservations bottom of the agreement.
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31 letters were exchanged between Sharif Hussein branched Mecca and Sir Henry McMahon, Commissioner
British upper Egypt. No nothing in these letters reveals a British pledge
Unequivocally include the Land of Israel on the ground to be submitted to Arab rule. See exchange
All letters, with an introduction by MidEastWeb:
32 Complete text of the Treaty of Sevres contains 933 paragraphs:
Especially the question of the Land of Israel is Article 46 explicitly detailing the instructions
Special mandate for Israel regarding the Jewish national home. This Article
Completely different from his predecessor, Article 49, concerning Mandates of Syria and Mesopotamia.
91 League of Nations, a Canadian perspective.
92. The complete text of the basic covenant of the League of Nations. See in particular Article 55
91 See footnote 39 regarding the decision Smuts.
93 attorney Howard Grief is the author of Legal Foundation and Borders of Israel under International Law.
99 Dr. Jacques Gaotiih is the author of SOVEREIGNTY OVER THE OLD CITY OF JERUSALEM: A study of the historical, religious, political and legal aspects of the question of the Old City.
98 See Declaration of the World Zionist peace conference Bfarisb filed February 3
: 2222
After a month) 9 March 2222 (American Jewish group filed a statement
Own, expressing opposition to the founding of a Jewish national home in the Land of Israel:
It should be noted that the ideas expressed in that declaration are still heard in anti-Jewish
Many Zionists.
91: See the recommendations of the King Commission Crane, 11 August 2222
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) Aklzm"i (citizens of Canada for the sake of Israel's legal rights
92: See the full text of the decision Lodge-Fish What 31 June 2211
91 records meeting of the Land of Israel and of the Supreme Council of the Allies, was held on 18
April 19, 2211, Pleasant Dootz'an ", published in 2281. See or
92 QUESTIA offers an exhaustive list of books, reviews and articles related to the conference
San Remo and other contemporaries:
81 The complete text of The San Remo See
82 There are some misunderstandings about the legitimacy of the State of Israel. Some stem from the difference
Between "state" umma ". While the "nation of Israel" was recognized anew at the San Remo
In 2211, an act which represents the most important development in Jewish history
Modern declaration of the state of Israel in 2291 was a natural result of the mandate, without
All contact formulation Partition Resolution of the UN General Assembly, Resolution No. 212
From November 2292, a decision which did not require one. A detailed explanation of these matters was submitted on-
: By Howard Grief June 1121
81 The complete text of the Treaty of Sevres, see Note 32, which emphasizes the Articles 29 and 28 of
This Convention.
83 See comprehensive information about the state of Mesopotamia - today's Iraq - from 2229 to 2231
Including the British Mandate was decided upon at San Remo and he's been in effect since 2211
See also the French mandate over Syria and Lebanon:
89 The concept of dhimmitude) the status of dhimmi (coined by Bat Ye'or) Bat Ye'or)
Written extensively on this aspect of Islamic law:
See more focused article by Bat Ye'or on the Arab-Israeli conflict (1979)
88 See in particular the Article 18 of the basic covenant of the League of Nations, contained in Part A of
Treaty of Versailles:
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81 See the full text of the Franco-British as advertised
See also the International Boundary Study published by the Department of State
: US in 2212
82 detailed study of the history of the Israeli-Lebanese border and their implications today, authored by David
Eshel, a security analyst and former officer in the Israel Defense Forces.
81. See the chapters "Creating Transjordan" and the Churchill White Paper of 2211
82 "since the Allied powers agree, for the purpose of giving effect to the provisions of Article 11
Of the basic covenant of the League of Nations, to entrust herself mandatory on-elected
By the same powers Palestine space management, first-therefore belonged to the empire
Turkish borders as fixed by them "), my emphasis - SB (.
11 declaration of independence unilaterally released by the General Syrian Congress: news
Reached the European and American press in March 2211, but a full report on the Declaration
Posted by The New York Times "May 2211
12 letters were exchanged drilled in 1915-1916 between Sherif Hussein of Mecca and Sir Henry McMahon,
British High Commissioner in Egypt, representing the British government. See note link
11. See Note 11
13 See also the International Boundary Study published by the Department of State
: US in 2212
19 As early as 2212, the British intended to limit Jewish immigration to Israel-Israel. Reasons
The main cited were an Arab consensus existence of a primarily Jewish area,
And the false assertion that the country could not absorb any way serious influx of immigrants. New York
Times "reported on Churchill's speech in the lower house on June 28 2212), see the
The last of the article (:
18 In summary emergence of Transjordan and changes until 2281, see the report from
Sanderson Beck, which also includes interesting information about the history of Syria and Lebanon dating
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) Aklzm"i (citizens of Canada for the sake of Israel's legal rights
Ottoman Empire until 2211. The section on the Transjordan, see the last part of the
11 The complete text of the mandate, see:
Interesting report on the mandate and resources of historical and political perspective full
Available from Douglas Feith in his article "A Mandate for Israel" written in 2223, when
The signing of the Oslo Accords:
12 It is interesting to read the official narrative of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, as it is presented
Jordanian national constitution:
The introduction of a historical document, we find The Jordanians saw the Zionist movement
The biggest threat on them personally and the whole Arab nation. "Glorifying
Document the first in a series of Arab attacks on Jewish settlements) 11
April 2211 (; the Balfour Declaration, describing it as being contrary to the religious Laws
And internationally recognized civil, "and cast the blame pre- conditions Deteriorating
Quickly the land of Israel. "However, in practice, all the commissions of inquiry) Commissions of Enquiry (built by the British from 2211 to 2231 accusing the Arab
Incitement to violence.
Chapter VII - the Jordanian-Palestinian relationship, read the "racist Zionist Threat
And imperialism endangers the existence, culture and sacred heritage of the nation
Arabic ... "and the rejection of the option of" Jordan is Palestine ", despite the common identity
Jordanians and Palestinians: "Jordan and Palestine is an Arab coin minted by the struggle
The common resist the Zionist plan to expand and reports decisively Us
Alternative homeland. "
. Aafi"c Israel signed a peace treaty with Jordan in 2229
11 The same is true particularly in France, where "communities" on a regular basis are called "colonies" -
12: See the full text of the Fourth Geneva Convention, particularly Article 92
21 See The Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, advisory opinion of the International Court of Justice, in 2
: July 1119
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) Aklzm"i (citizens of Canada for the sake of Israel's legal rights
About 22 communities and legality, contrary to popular belief, see an expert appraisal by two
- International jurists premium Eugene and. Rostov and Julius Stone:
- Moshe Dan) Dann (May 1112 Legality of the Settlements
-: Ricki Hollander, October 1112 Settlements and the reports in the media
- Joseph Farah, "The issue of settlements", 0220
- Jeffrey Hlmriic, "Difolmtiim and legal aspects of interest in the communities," January
- David Meir-Levi, "the occupation and settlements: Legend and Reality" June 2005:
- Gerald Adler, "Saving the legal succession: 'Territories settlement rights
- David M. Phillips, "The Legend of illegal settlements", December 2009
- Alan Baker, "The issue of settlements: distortion Geneva and Oslo agreements," January 2011:
- David Matas, "communities: dismantling or Stirtm" June 2011:
- Israeli Foreign Ministry's position:
21 See the full text of the Charter of the United Nations:
23 Resolution 181 of the UN General Assembly recommended the partition of the Land of Israel
And was adopted on 12 November 2292. Note that mistake today called "West
Bank "is called" Judea and Samaria "in her decision.
This UN resolution is discussed further later in the guide.
29 See the full text of the Vienna Convention on the Law of art, was published in 2212 and entered
Into force in 2211) particularly, Section B: 2102
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28 See the advisory opinion on "the legal consequences for countries continued presence of
South Africa, Namibia ") The Legal Consequences for States of the Continued Presence of South Africa in Namibia (published by the Court
: International Court of Justice on June 12, 2222
21 See the full text of the Anglo-American Convention:
22 See Article 5 of the US Constitution, which deals with my duty, superiority, Weeks ":
21 See full text of the MacDonald White Paper, with an introduction by MidEastWeb:
22 See note 22 for different opinions concerning the legality of H"iisobim ".
11 Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, Haj Amin al-Husseini, his life, his beliefs, activities
His incitement and ties with Nazi Germany:
12 See Final Report in connection with the commission of inquiry of Hiikrft:
11 See the full text of the Churchill White Paper with an introduction by me Aisrof.
13. See Note 32
19 add-east of Transjordan apparently occurred at the same time to settle the
The boundaries of the area set to the northern part of the Arabian Peninsula, during the negotiations between the
British Ibn Saud, who was Sultan of Najd) See page 1 of the International Boundary Study authored by the US State Department:
See also the comments regarding Transjordan this chapter: Mandate for Israel:
'Division' first.
18 Lecture by Sir Martin Gilbert, "Toward a Jewish state") Towards Statehood Jewish (Zionist Federation's ceremony in honor of the anniversary of the Declaration nineties
. Balfour, held at the Foreign Ministry in London on 32 October 1112
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11 See the main conclusions of the investigation committee of either:
12 See the full text of Hope-Simpson report on matters of immigration, settlement and development;
11 things Chinese governor said at the committee's report for the Land of Israel, as reported on-
: By Victor Sharpe November 1112 Http://
12 Dr. Mandelbaum investigates the long history of the Arabs in Israel
And its surroundings, including the sharp increase in the number of Jerusalem since the early twentieth century
21 See the full text of the Passfield White Paper:
22 See Summary of the Arab revolt sources from 2231 to head one off final by forces
: British in 2232
A more detailed analysis of the sources of the rebellion, which led to the events and results, including
These exhaustive bibliography, see the report of Zionism-Israel Information Centre:
21 See the full text of the Peel Commission Report:
23 Twentieth Zionist Congress, gave David Ben-Gurion to win a clear expression of non-Nitnt-
Abolition of the Jewish people to Israel-Israel:
"No Jew may waive the right of the Jewish people and the Land of Israel to exist.
Any Jewish body is not authorized to do so. No Jew living today who is authorized to waive
Although the land. This right is preserved by the Jewish people throughout the ages and you can not give up
Under any conditions. Even universe within any person to declare that giving the right to
This, they have neither the power nor the authority to deny future generations to be born.
Jewish people are not charged and is not responsible for any such waiver. Our right to this land,
Intact, stable, an inalienable and eternal. Final Redemption to come, not
We give up this historic right. "
However, because of the urgency of Jewish immigration to Israel-Israel during the Nazi period, agreed
Ben-Gurion and Weizmann Lord Peel's proposal in principle, in the hope that the British will improve
Proposal for distribution. The approach adopted in the end the Zionist Congress met
Barbier's strong opposition to Stephen Wise), a pioneer who support Zionism (Menachem
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) Aklzm "i (citizens of Canada for the sake of Israel's legal rights
Ussishkin) Revisionist movement, temporarily retired from the Zionist Organization (Isaac
Tabenkin) an ardent supporter of settling the land (.
: See summary hearings Zionist Congresses from 2213 to 2291
29 See the full text of the report Woodhead Commission:
28: See a short summary of the deliberations and outcome of the Conference set. James in 2232
21 See the full text of the MacDonald White Paper:
22 Hint Munich Agreement of September 2231, when the governments of Britain and France) headed
Neville Chamberlain and Edouard Daladier (agreed to Hitler's demands in connection Lsodtnlnd, thus
Betrayed the Czechs and became the "Munich" basket of political reconciliation without purpose.
21 decision of the UN General Assembly No. 181 called for the division of the Land of Israel
And was adopted on 12 November 2292. Note that the region known today as wrongly
"West Bank" decision text called "Judea and Samaria", correctly:
22. See Note 82
211 See the full text of the Charter of the United Nations:
212 following the Six Day War of June 2212, the government of Israel headed
Prime Minister Levi Eshkol, not to apply Israeli law to the territories
The new West Bank - as had to be done on the basis of the Constitutional Court
State - but rather voluntarily apply the provisions of international law
Relating to belligerent occupation), 2212 Hague Regulations and the Fourth Geneva Convention
.) From 2292
Paragraphs 42-43.)
This decision was taken by Prime Minister Eshkol two reasons: to avoid imbalance
Demographic and keep open the way for negotiations for peace with the Arabs. However,
The Arabs rejected any negotiations for peace or even recognition of Israel conference
Khartoum in September 2212, and thus dispersed hell hopes to resolve the conflict
Peacefully in the foreseeable future: Http://
) Decisions Khartoum, with an introduction by me Aisrof (.
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) Aklzm "i (citizens of Canada for the sake of Israel's legal rights
211: The words of Jean Z'aors speech on 2213 Le courage, c'est de chercher la vérité et de la dire; c'est de ne pas subir la loi du mensonge triomphant qui passe, et de ne pas faire écho, de notre âme, de notre bouche et de nos mains aux applaudissements imbéciles et aux huées fanatiques.
Henry Kissinger 213: "When the pursuit of peace becomes the exclusive goal of foreign policy, is
Becomes a tool in the hands of the most brutal cock. It leads to moral disarmament. "
See also: Solomon will sing, "Peace is not the right target") Peace is the Wrong Objective. July 11, 1112)
219 "Justice, justice shall you pursue." The relationship between truth, justice and peace in deeply etched Thought
Israel: "On three things the world stands: on truth, justice and peace"
) A year, Avot Units (.
218 Thomas Aquinas: Thomas Aquinas: Summa Theologica, Second Part, Part II, Question 29, Article3, Reply to Objection 3:.
211: See a summary of the stages of the Oslo peace process from 2222 to 1112
Subsequent peace plans, see:
The Arab Peace Initiative (March, 2002) - With an introduction by me Aisrof.
The Performance-Based Roadmap to a Permanent Two-State Solution - (April, 2002)
The Geneva Accord (December 2003) - conceived by Yossi Beilin and Yasser Abed
Teacher, and was praised by former US President Jimmy Carter:
Network 212 inventions and historical distortions expanded in November 1121, when
A senior official of the Palestinian Authority claimed Slcotl west of the Temple Mount in Jerusalem
There was no connection to Judaism.
This last Palestinian absurdity evoked sharp condemnation from the Israeli government and the Department of
American state. A few weeks later, the boat PA
The report from its website, despite the author's claim today that the report reflects the truth.
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) Aklzm "i (citizens of Canada for the sake of Israel's legal rights
These continuous blows against Jewish history seem bread and butter of propaganda
PA: see declaration of Sheikh Taysir al-Tamimi, chief kadi
: PA, in that case in August 1112
211 Ethics of the Fathers) A: Hand ("If I am not for myself, who is for me? And if I am I, what am I? And if not now,

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