Information taken in part from Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs website
C. 17th Century BCE
The Patriarchs of the Israelites, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob bring the belief in One God to the Promised Land where they settle.
Famine forces the Israelites to migrate to Egypt
Documents unearthed in Mesopotamia, dating back to 2000- 1500 BCE, corroborate aspects of their nomadic way of life as described in the Bible. The Book of Genesis relates how Abraham was summoned from Ur of the Chaldeans to Canaan to bring about the formation of a people with belief in the One God. When a famine spread through Canaan, Jacob (Israel), his twelve sons and their families settled in Egypt, where their descendants were reduced to slavery and pressed into forced labor.
C. 13th Century BCE
Moses leads the Israelites from Egypt, followed by 40 years of wandering in the desert.
The Torah, including the Ten Commandments received at Mount Saini.
Moses was chosen by God to take his people out of Egypt and back to the Land of Israel promised to their forefathers. They wandered for 40 years in the Sinai desert, where they were forged into a nation and received the Torah (Pentateuch), which included the Ten Commandments and gave form and content to their monotheistic faith. During the next two centuries, the Israelites conquered most of the Land of Israel and relinquished their nomadic ways to become farmers and craftsmen; a degree of economic and social consolidation followed. Periods of relative peace alternated with times of war during which the people rallied behind leaders known as 'judges,' chosen for their political and military skills as well as for their leadership qualities.
C. 13th - 12th Centuries BCE
The Israelites settle the Land of Israel.
Jewish Monarchy established.
The first king, Saul (c. 1020 BCE), bridged the period between loose tribal organization and the setting up of a full monarchy under his successor, David. King David (c.1004-965 BCE) established Israel as a major power in the region by successful military expeditions, including the final defeat of the Philistines, as well as by constructing a network of friendly alliances with nearby kingdoms. David was succeeded by his son Solomon (c.965-930 BCE) who further strengthened the kingdom. Crowning his achievements was the building of the Temple in Jerusalem, which became the center of the Jewish people's national and religious life.
Jerusalem made capital of David's Kingdom.
First Temple, the national and spiritual center of the Jewish people, built in Jerusalem by King Solomon.
Kingdom divided into Judah and Israel.
After Solomon's death (930 BCE), open insurrection led to the breaking away of the ten northern tribes and division of the country into a northern kingdom, Israel, and a southern kingdom, Judah, on the territory of the tribes of Judah and Benjamin. The Kingdom of Israel, with its capital Samaria, lasted more than 200 years under 19 kings, while the Kingdom of Judah was ruled from Jerusalem for 350 years by an equal number of kings of the lineage of David. The expansion of the Assyrian and Babylonian empires brought first Israel and later Judah under foreign control.
722 - 720
Israel crushed by Assyrians; 10 tribes exiled (Ten Lost Tribes).
Judah conquered by Babylonia; Jerusalem and First Temple destroyed; most Jews exiled to Babylonia.
The Babylonian conquest brought an end to the First Jewish Commonwealth (First Temple period) but did not sever the Jewish people's connection to the Land of Israel. The exile to Babylonia, which followed the destruction of the First Temple (586 BCE), marked the beginning of the Jewish Diaspora. There, Judaism began to develop a religious framework and way of life outside the Land, ultimately ensuring the people's national survival and spiritual identity and imbuing it with sufficient vitality to safeguard its future as a nation.
PERSIAN AND HELLENISTIC PERIODS
Many Jews return from Babylonia; Temple rebuilt.
Following a decree by the Persian King Cyrus, conqueror of the Babylonian empire (538 BCE), some 50,000 Jews set out on the First Return to the Land of Israel, led by Zerubabel, a descendant of the House of David. Less than a century later, the Second Return was led by Ezra the Scribe. The repatriation of the Jews under Ezra's inspired leadership, construction of the Second Temple on the site of the First Temple, refortification of Jerusalem's walls and establishment of the Knesset Hagedolah (Great Assembly) as the supreme religious and judicial body of the Jewish people marked the beginning of the Second Jewish Commonwealth (Second Temple period).
Land conquered by Alexander the Great; Hellenistic rule.
As part of the ancient world conquered by Alexander the Great of Greece (332 BCE), the Land remained a Jewish theocracy under Syrian-based Seleucid rulers.
Maccabean (Hasmonean) revolt against restrictions on practice of Judaism and desecration of the Temple
When the Jews were prohibited from practicing Judaism and their Temple was desecrated as part of an effort to impose Greek-oriented culture and customs on the entire population, the Jews rose in revolt (166 BCE). First led by Mattathias of the priestly Hasmonean family and then by his son Judah the Maccabee, the Jews subsequently entered Jerusalem and purified the Temple (164 BCE).
Jewish autonomy under Hasmoneans.
Following further Hasmonean victories (147 BCE), the Seleucids restored autonomy to Judea, as the Land of Israel was now called, and, with the collapse of the Seleucid kingdom (129 BCE), Jewish independence was again achieved.
Jewish independence under Hasmonean monarchy.
Under the Hasmonean dynasty, which lasted about 80 years, the kingdom regained boundaries not far short of Solomon's realm, political consolidation under Jewish rule was attained and Jewish life flourished.
Herod, Roman vassal king, rules the Land of Israel; Temple in Jerusalem refurbished
Ministry of Jesus of Nazareth
Jewish revolt against the Romans
Destruction of Jerusalem and Second Temple.
Bar Kokhba uprising against Rome.
Codification of Jewish oral law (Mishnah) completed.
By the end of the 4th century, following Emperor Constantine's adoption of Christianity (313) and the founding of the Byzantine Empire, the Land of Israel had become a predominantly Christian country. Churches were built on Christian holy sites in Jerusalem, Bethlehem and Galilee, and monasteries were established in many parts of the country. The Jews were deprived of their former relative autonomy, as well as of their right to hold public positions, and were forbidden to enter Jerusalem except on one day of the year (Tisha b'Av - ninth of Av)to mourn the destruction of the Temple.
The Persian invasion of 614 was welcomed and aided by the Jews, who were inspired by messianic hopes of deliverance. In gratitude for their help, they were granted the administration of Jerusalem, an interlude which lasted about three years. Subsequently, the Byzantine army regained the city (629) and again expelled its Jewish population.
The Arab conquest of the Land came four years after the death of Muhammad (632) and lasted more than four centuries, with caliphs ruling first from Damascus, then from Baghdad and Egypt. At the outset of Islamic rule, Jewish settlement in Jerusalem was resumed, and the Jewish community was granted permission to live under "protection," the customary status of non-Muslims under Islamic rule, which safeguarded their lives, property and freedom of worship in return for payment of special poll and land taxes. However, the subsequent introduction of restrictions against non-Muslims (717) affected the Jews' public conduct as well as their religious observances and legal status. The imposition of heavy taxes on agricultural land compelled many to move from rural areas to towns, where their circumstances hardly improved, while increasing social and economic discrimination forced many Jews to leave the country. By the end of the 11th century, the Jewish community in the Land had diminished considerably and had lost some of its organizational and religious cohesiveness.
On site of First and Second Temples in Jerusalem, Dome of the Rock built by Caliph Abd el-Malik
For the next 200 years, the country was dominated by the Crusaders, who, following an appeal by Pope Urban II, came from Europe to recover the Holy Land from the infidels. In July 1099, after a five-week siege, the knights of the First Crusade and their rabble army captured Jerusalem, massacring most of the city's non-Christian inhabitants. Barricaded in their synagogues, the Jews defended their quarter, only to be burnt to death or sold into slavery. During the next few decades, the Crusaders extended their power over the rest of the country, through treaties and agreements, but mostly by bloody military victories. The Latin Kingdom of the Crusaders was that of a conquering minority confined mainly to fortified cities and castles. When the Crusaders opened up transportation routes from Europe, pilgrimages to the Holy Land became popular and, at the same time, increasing numbers of Jews sought to return to their homeland. Documents of the period indicate that 300 rabbis from France and England arrived in a group, with some settling in Acro (Akko), others in Jerusalem. After the overthrow of the Crusaders by a Muslim army under Saladin (1187), the Jews were again accorded a certain measure of freedom, including the right to live in Jerusalem. Although the Crusaders regained a foothold in the country after Saladin's death (1193), their presence was limited to a network of fortified castles. Crusader authority in the Land ended after a final defeat (1291) by the Mamluks, a Muslim military class which had come to power in Egypt.
The Land under the Mamluks became a backwater province ruled from Damascus. Akko, Jaffa (Yafo) and other ports were destroyed for fear of new crusades, and maritime as well as overland commerce was interrupted. By the end of the Middle Ages, the country's urban centers were virtually in ruins, most of Jerusalem was abandoned and the small Jewish community was poverty-stricken. The period of Mamluk decline was darkened by political and economic upheavals, plagues, locust invasions and devastating earthquakes.
Following the Ottoman conquest in 1517, the Land was divided into four districts and attached administratively to the province of Damascus and ruled from Istanbul.
Orderly government, until the death (1566) of Sultan Suleiman the Magificent, brought improvements and stimulated Jewish immigration. Some newcomers settled in Jerusalem, but the majority went to Safad where, by mid-16th century, the Jewish population had risen to about 10,000, and the town had become a thriving textile center as well as the focus of intense intellectual activity. During this period, the study ofKabbalah (Jewish mysticism) flourished, and contemporary clarifications of Jewish law, as codified in the Shulhan Arukh, spread throughout the Diaspora from the study houses in Safad.
Jerusalem divided under Israeli and Jordanian rule.
First Knesset (parliament) elected.
Israel admitted to United Nations as 59th member.
Mass immigration from Europe and Arab countries.
In the course of an eight-day campaign, the IDF captured the Gaza Strip and the entire Sinai peninsula, halting 10 miles (16 km.) east of the Suez Canal. A United Nations decision to station a UN Emergency Force (UNEF) along the Egypt-Israel border and Egyptian assurances of free navigation in the Gulf of Eilat led Israel to agree to withdraw in stages (November 1956 - March 1957) from the areas taken a few weeks earlier. Consequently, the Straits of Tiran were opened, enabling the development of trade with Asian and East African countries as well as oil imports from the Persian Gulf.
Adolf Eichmann tried and executed in Israel for his part in the Holocaust.
National Water Carrier completed, bringing water from Lake Kinneret in the north to the semi-arid south.
At the end of six days of fighting, previous cease-fire lines were replaced by new ones, with Judea, Samaria, Gaza, the Sinai peninsula and the Golan Heights under Israel's control. As a result, the northern villages were freed from 19 years of recurrent Syrian shelling; the passage of Israeli and Israel-bound shipping through the Straits of Tiran was ensured; and Jerusalem, which had been divided under Israeli and Jordanian rule since 1949, was reunified under Israel's authority.
Three years of relative calm along the borders were shattered on Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement), the holiest day of the Jewish year, when Egypt and Syria launched a coordinated surprise assault against Israel (6 October 1973), with the Egyptian army crossing the Suez Canal and Syrian troops penetrating the Golan Heights. Two years of difficult negotiations between Israel and Egypt and between Israel and Syria resulted in disengagement agreements, according to which Israel withdrew from parts of the territories captured during the war.
Israel becomes an associate member of the European Common Market.
Likud forms government after Knesset elections, end of 30 years of Labor rule.
Visit of Egyptian President Anwar Sadat to Jerusalem.
Camp David Accords include framework for comprehensive peace in the Middle East and proposal for Palestinian self-government.
National unity government (Llikud and Labor) formed after elections.
Operation Moses, immigration of Jews from Ethiopia.
Free Trade Agreement signed with United States.
Widespread violence (intifada) starts in Israeli-administered areas.
Four-point peace initiative proposed by Israel. Start of mass immigration of Jews from former Soviet Union.
Israel attacked by Iraqi Scud missiles during Gulf war.
Middle East peace conference convened in Madrid
Operation Solomon, airlift of Jews from Ethiopia.
Diplomatic relations established with China and India.
New government headed by Yitzhak Rabin of Labor party.
Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangements for the Palestinians signed by Israel and PLO, as representative of the Palestinian people.
Implementation of Palestinian self-government in Gaza Strip and Jericho area.
Full diplomatic relations with the Holy See.
Morocco and Tunisia interest offices set up.
Israel-Jordan Peace Treaty signed.
Rabin, Peres, Arafat awarded Nobel Peace Prize.
Broadened Palestinian self-government implemented in West Bank and Gaza Strip
Palestinian Council elected.
Prime Minister Rabin assassinated at peace rally.
Shimon Peres becomes prime minister.
Fundamentalist Arab terrorism against Israel escalates.
Operation Grapes of Wrath, retaliation for Hizbullah terrorists' attacks on northern Israel.
Trade representation offices set up in Oman and Qatar.
Likud forms government after Knesset elections.
Benjamin Netanyahu becomes prime minister.
Omani trade representation office opened in Tel Aviv.
Hebron Protocol signed by Israel and the PA.
Israel celebrates its 50th anniversary.
Israel and the PLO sign the Wye River Memorandum to facilitate implementation of the Interim Agreement.
Transcript of "Unit 1 world hist"
1. Chapter 1<br />The First Humans<br />
2. Early Humans<br />Historians rely on documents and written records to create pictures of the past<br />Prehistory<br />The period before writing developed<br />Archeology and science help provide answers to how prehistoric humans lived<br />Archeology<br />Study of past societies through an analysis of what people have left behind<br />Archeologists examine artifacts, which can consist of tools, pottery, paintings, weapons, buildings, etc.<br />Anthropology <br />Study of human life and culture<br />Anthropologists use artifacts and human fossils to determine how people lived<br />Archeologists and anthropologists have developed scientific ways to see how humans lived<br />Radiocarbon dating<br />Scientists measure the amount of radioactive carbon on an object<br />Only good for measuring objects no older than 50,000 years old<br />Microscopic and biological analysis<br />Blood, hair, and plant tissues left on rocks, tools, and weapons is analyzed<br />
3. Early Stages of Developments<br />Australopithecines<br />Earliest humanlike creatures lived in eastern and southern Africa around 3 to 4 million years ago<br />They were the first hominids<br />Creatures that walk upright<br />Homo erectus<br />Second stage in human development, around 1.5 million years ago<br />Made use of larger and more varied tools<br />These were the first to leave Africa and move into Asia and Europe and learnt how to use fire <br />Homo sapiens<br />Means “wise human beings”<br />Third stage of human development<br />Neanderthals<br />First found in Neander Valley in Germany, dated between 100,000 and 30,000 BC<br />Burial of death might indicate that they believed in an afterlife<br />Homo sapiens sapiens<br />Means “wise, wise human beings”<br />
4. Spread of Homo Sapiens Sapiens<br />By 30,000 BC, Homo sapiens sapiens replaced Neanderthals, who possibly died out as a result of conflict between the two groups<br />The spread of these modern humans was a slow process<br />Around 2 to 3 miles beyond their old hunting grounds per generation<br />Difference between humans and other species is the ability to make tools<br />Paleolithic Age<br />Period of early human history (approx. 2,500,000 to 10,000 BC) in which humans used simple stone tools<br />
5. The Hunter-Gatherers of the Old Stone Age<br />Humans used to rely on hunting and gathering for daily food<br />The people in this era were nomads<br />People who move from place to place<br />Paleolithic people learnt what animals to hunt and what plants to eat<br />Over time, tool technology evolved and smaller stone points and blades were made<br />First tools served a variety of purposes<br />Roles of men and women<br />It’s probable that both were responsible for finding food<br />Women probably stayed close to their camps<br />They probably played a role acquiring food by gathering berries, nuts, and grains<br />Men did most of the hunting of large animals, which might be far from camp<br />By passing their skills and trade, future generations learnt how to survive<br />Adapting to survive<br />Paleolithic people found shelter in caves and eventually created tent-like shelter using animal hides, wood, and animal bones<br />
6. The Hunter-Gatherers of the Old Stone Age<br />The Use of Fire<br />As humans moved into colder regions, they learnt how to use fire to protect them from harsh conditions<br />Fire gave a sense of community for the people who gathered around the fire<br />This allows humans to scare away wild animals away and flush animals out of caves to hunt them<br />Paleolithic people eventually made drill-like wooden devices to start fire, and soon learnt that certain stones give off sparks when struck against a hard rock<br />The Ice Ages<br />Most recent ice age began around 100,000 BC<br />Sheets of ice covered large parts of Europe, Asia, and North America<br />These conditions posed a serious threat to human life<br />Use of fire allowed humans to adapt to harsh environments<br />Creating Art<br />Art existed even in prehistoric times<br />Paintings usually contained wildlife images<br />These paintings were found in caves<br />
7. Neolithic Revolution and the Rise of Civilization<br />Neolithic revolution<br />Greek for “New Stone”<br />This period lasted from 8,000 BC – 4,000 BC<br />Occurred after the end of the last Ice Age (8,000 BC)<br />Systematic agriculture became a popular practice<br />The keeping of animals and growing of food on a regular basis<br />Animals would be domesticated (adapted for human use)<br />Grains and plants would be planted<br />This gave humans control of the environment<br />Cultivation of wheat and barley spread from southwestern Asia into the Nile Valley of Egypt<br />
8. Neolithic Revolution and the Rise of Civilization<br />Neolithic farming villages<br />Growing of crops on a permanent basis gave rise to permanent settlements<br />Appeared in Europe, India, China, Egypt, Mesoamerica<br />Jericho (in Palestine near the Dead Sea) was one of the oldest and largest in existence (8000 BC)<br />CatalHuyuk (CHAH tuhlhoo YOOK) was an even larger village found in present-day Turkey<br />Walls enclosed 32 acres<br />Shrines containing figures of gods and godesses<br />People grew fruits, nuts, and varieties of wheat<br />People usually had a surplus of food<br />This allowed people to do things other than farming<br />This led to the rise of artisans<br />Skilled workers who created weapons, jewelry, ships, and other things<br />
9. Neolithic Revolution and the Rise of Civilization<br />Consequences of the Neolithic Revolution<br />Because people moved to permanent villages, people felt the need to create permanent shelter (houses)<br />Communities stored good, which led to trade<br />People started specializing in crafts<br />Men became more active in farming and herding animals, usually taking them far from the settlement<br />Women remained behind, caring for children and taking responsibility for weaving cloth, turning milk into cheese<br />Men started acquiring more of a dominant role<br />End of the Neolithic Age<br />Use of metals marked a new level of human control over the environment and its resources<br />Craftspeople discovered that by heating metal-bearing rocks, they could turn metal into liquid, which can be cast into molds to make weapons<br />Copper was the first of these metals<br />Asia found that a combination of copper and tin created bronze, which is harder and more durable<br />This led to the Bronze Age<br />
10. The Emergence of Civilization<br />Culture is the way of life that people follow<br />Simple culture was developed <br />Civilization is a complex culture in which large numbers of human beings share a number of common elements<br />Rise of cities<br />Cities are a chief feature of civilizations<br />Cities were established along river valleys, where people could farm on a large scale<br />A significant number of people lived in cities<br />Growth of Governments<br />Growing numbers of people and the need to maintain the food supply and the need to defend led to need for rule<br />This need for rule led to need for government<br />Monarchies were the main form of government<br />Religion<br />Religion was developed to explain the workings of the forces of nature and existence itself<br />Priests supervised rituals aimed at pleasing gods and goddesses<br />This gave priests special powers and important people<br />Rulers claimed their power based on divine approval, and some rulers claimed to be divine<br />
11. The Emergence of Civilization<br />New social structure<br />Rulers, upper class of priests, government officials, and warriors dominated society<br />Below this upper class was a group of free people, consisting of farmers, artisans, and craftspeople<br />Slaves were at the bottom<br />Use of writing<br />Rulers, priests, merchants, and artisans used writing to keep records<br />Not all civilizations depended on writing to keep records<br />The Inca relied on well-trained memory experts to keep track of their important matters<br />Artistic activity<br />Temples and pyramids were built as places of worship, sacrifice, or burial<br />Paintings and sculptures portrayed gods and goddesses or the natural forces<br />
12. Chapter 2<br />Western Asia and Egypt<br />
13. Impact of Geography<br />Greeks talked about the land “between the rivers”<br />Tigris and Euphrates in Mesopotamia<br />This place was known as the Fertile Crescent<br />Area from the Mediterranean sea to the Persian Gulf<br />Rich soil and abundant crops<br />Mesopotamia<br />Sumerians were the first Mesopotamian civilization<br />Received little rain<br />Rivers would leave layers of silt, and when they overflowed, they would enrich the soil with the silt<br />Farming was done when people could control the rivers<br />Irrigation and drainage systems made it possible to grow crops on a regular basis<br />Irrigation = the bringing of water to fields through man-made canals<br />Abundance of food made it possible for people to live together in cities and specialize in different trades<br />
14. City-States of Ancient Mesopotamia<br />City-States = political unit made up of a city and its surrounding land<br />By 3,000 BC, Sumerians established a number of independent cities in southern Mesopotamia, including URUK<br />City-states were formed as cities expanded and acquired political and economic control over the region<br />Sumerian cities<br />Surrounded by walls<br />Mud bricks were easily shaped by hand and left to dry in the hot sun for buildings<br />They created the arch and the dome, and built some of the largest brick buildings in thworld<br />
15. City-States of Ancient Mesopotamia<br />Most prominent building in a Sumerian city was the temple dedicated to the chief god or goddess<br />Temples were usually built atop ziggurats, which are massive stepped towers<br />People devoted much wealth to build temples<br />Temples and related buildings served as the center of the city (physically, economically, and politically)<br />Priests and priestesses had a lot of power<br />Played an important part in ruling<br />Sumerians believed that the gods and goddesses ruled the city<br />Theocracy (rule by religion)<br />Kingship was regarded as divine in origin<br />Kings, wives, and children lived in large palaces<br />Economy and Society<br />Sumerians imported copper, tin, and timber in EXCHANGE for dried fish, wool, barley, wheat, and metal goods<br />The invention of the wheel in 3,000 BC led to wheeled carts, making transportation of good easier<br />3 major groups were Nobles, Commoners, Slaves<br />Commoners worked for the temples, estates, farmers, merchants, fishers, and craftsmen<br />90 percent or more were commoners<br />Slaves belonged to the palace officials who were used for building projects<br />
16. Mesopotamia<br />Conflict grew with the expansion of city states<br />City-states fought for control of land and water<br />Flat land in this area left city-states open to invasion<br />To the north of the Sumerian city-states, were the Akkadians<br />Sargon, leader of Akkadians, overran the Sumerian city-states and established the first empire ever<br />Empire = large political unit or state, usually under a single leader that controls many peoples or territories<br />They are easy to create but difficult to maintain<br />Attacks from neighboring people caused this empire to fall around 2100 BC<br />In 1792 BC, a new empire came to control much of Mesopotamia<br />Hammurabi from Babylon gained control of Sumer and Akkad (regions)<br />After his death, weak kings were unable to keep the empire united<br />
17. The Code of Hammurabi<br />Made a collection of 282 laws, similar to the later Israelite codes<br />This code provides insight into social conditions in Mesopotamia<br />Based on system of strict justice<br />Penalties for criminal offenses were severe<br />“an eye for an eye, tooth for a tooth” system was employed<br />Largest category focused on marriage and family<br />Parents arranged marriage and had to sign contract<br />House builders held responsible for houses<br />Patriarchal society<br />Male-dominated<br />Women had fewer rights and privileges than men<br />Women would stay home<br />If she failed to complete her duties, husband could divorce her<br />Complete obedience was expected<br />
18. Importance of Religion<br />Extreme natural forces (floods, heavy winds, etc.) made Mesopotamians believe that supernatural forces controlled the world<br />These forces were not kind or reliable<br />Gods and goddesses permeated all aspects of the universe<br />Polytheistic religion<br />Belief in many gods<br />Human beings were created to do manual labor for the gods<br />
19. Creativity of Sumerians<br />Invented the oldest writing system (Cuneiform), dating to about 3,000 BC<br />Wedge-shaped impressions would be made on clay tablets, which were then baked on the sun<br />This was used for record-keeping and passing down knowledge<br />Becoming a Scribe was a successful career<br />(scribes were the writers)<br />Only the wealthy people could become scribes<br />Boys went to school where discipline was harsh (sunrise to sunset)<br />Misconduct was treated with canes or stick-beatings<br />The Epic of Gilgamesh<br />Mesopotamian epic poem about Gilgamesh, a wise king with a perfect body<br />He is part god and part human, and befriends a beast named Enkidu, with whom they do many good deeds<br />When Enkidu dies, Gilgamesh searches for immortality and fails <br />Lesson: only the gods are immortal<br />Technology<br />Developed wagon wheel, potter’s wheel (to shape containers), sundial, and arch<br />Heavenly constellations were charted, devised a number system based on 60 (that’s why we have 60 seconds in a minute, and 60 minutes in an hour)<br />
20. Egyptian Civilization: Gift of the Nile<br />Nile<br />Begins at the heart of Africa and courses northward for more than 4,000 miles<br />Longest river in the world<br />Nile Delta is called Lower Egypt<br />Important cities developed here<br />The land upstream (to the south) is called Upper Egypt<br />The yearly flooding of the Nile was a major event and was viewed as a miracle known as the “Gift of the Nile”<br />This left a deposit of rich soil/mud, making fertile land and called “The Black Land”<br />Surpluses in food made Egypt prosperous<br />River served as a unifying factor<br />Trade , travel, and communication<br />Egypt has natural barriers (unlike Mesopotamia, which is flat)<br />Desert, Red Sea, Mediterranean Sea<br />Egyptian life faced much stability due to lack of constant invasion<br />
21. Egypt<br />Religion<br />Provided a sense of security and timelessness<br />Polytheistic<br />2 main groups were Sun gods and Land gods<br />Sun was the source of life<br />Sun god took on different names and forms<br />Atum (human body with head of a falcon), Re (human form)<br />Land gods included Osiris and Isis<br />Osiris was said to have brought civilization to Egypt<br />Seth, his evil brother, killed him and chopped him into pieces<br />Isis, Osiris’ wife, resurrected him<br />Osiris is regarded as the symbol of resurrection<br />The dead were placed in tombs<br />Kings in pyramid tombs<br />
22. Egyptian History<br />3 Major periods: Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom, New Kingdom<br />Old Kingdom<br />Lasted from around 2700 BC to 2200 BC<br />Age of prosperity and splendor<br />Had a government bureaucracy<br />Administrative organization with officials and regular procedures<br />The Vizier (steward of the land) became very important<br />The title of Pharaoh (meaning great house or palace)became common<br />Breakdown in royal power meant that citizens were offending the gods and weakening that order<br />Pharaohs possessed absolute power <br />Complete, unlimited power<br />Pyramids<br />Dedicated to the dead<br />Egyptians believed that humans had two bodies (physical and spiritual)<br />The spiritual body could return and continue life in comfort<br />Egyptians practiced mummification to preserve bodies<br />Largest pyramid was built under King Khufu<br />Famous pyramid of Giza<br />Great Sphinx guards the pyramid<br />Body of a lion and head of a human<br />Symbol of royal power<br />
23. The Middle Kingdom<br />After the Old Kingdom collapsed, there was chaos<br />A new royal family came to power<br />Lasted about 2050 BC to 1652 BC<br />Soon portrayed as the Golden Age because it was the age of stability<br />Egypt began a period of expansion<br />They conquered Nubia, south of Egypt<br />Fortresses were built to protect the new frontier <br />Government sent armies to Palestine and Syria<br />During this period, pharaohs were regarded as shepherd of the people, as opposed to god0like<br />They were expected to provide for the public welfare<br />They dug a canal to connect the Nile to the Red Sea<br />Increased trade and transportation<br />
24. The New Kingdom<br />Middle kingdom ended around 1652 <br />Hyksos (people from western Asia) conquered Egypt<br />Used horse-drawn chariots and overwhelmed Egyptian soldiers who fought using donkey carts<br />They ruled much of Egypt for almost 100 years<br />This led to Egyptians learning much, such as the use of bronze for weapons and tools<br />Egyptians also mastered much of the military skills<br />New dynasty of pharaohs used new weapons to drive out the Hyksos and reunite Egypt<br />Egypt became the most powerful state in Southwest Asia<br />Hatshepsut <br />First woman to become pharaoh<br />Built Great Temple at Deir el Bahri, near Thebes<br />Thutmose III soon took power <br />Led military campaigns and occupied Syria and Palestine<br />Magnificent new buildings were then created<br />Amenhotep IV, soon named Akhenaton, angered the Egyptians by closing temples of other gods, only allowing the worship of the Sun God<br />King Tutankhamen restored the old gods after Akhenaton’s death<br />Ramses II eventually came to power and made Egypt an offensive force<br />They conquered Palestine, however, were unable to reestablish boundaries as before<br />Invasions from the “Sea Peoples” drove Egypt back to their land, and the Empire fell<br />For thousands of years, Egypt was dominated by Libyans, Nubians, Persians, and Macedonians <br />Cleopatra VII tried to reestablish Egypt’s independence, but her involvement with Rome led to her suicide and defeat. Egypt became a province in Rome’s mighty empire<br />
25. Egypt<br />Society<br />Simple structure, organized like a pyramid<br />God-King on top, Pharaoh surrounded by an upper class of nobles and priests<br />Members of ruling class managed their own estates, government, and provided much of wealth<br />Merchants carried active trade up and down the Nile<br />Largest number of people worked on land<br />Daily Life<br />Young girls and boys were married <br />Husband was master of the house<br />Wives were well respected<br />Women’s property stayed in THEIR hands<br />Purpose of marriage was to produce children<br />Only sons could carry out the family name, but daughters were not ignored<br />Writing and education<br />Hieroglyphics<br />Meaning, “Priest Carvings” or “sacred writings”<br />Used box pictures and abstract forms<br />First carved into stones<br />Art and Science<br />Architectural and artistic achievements<br />Made advances in math (geometry to survey volume of flooded areas)<br />365 day Calendar based on movements of the moon and Sirius, the bright star<br />Embalming (mummification) <br />
27. New Centers of Civilization<br />Role of Nomadic Peoples<br />People living in the present-day area of Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan<br />Built mud-brick buildings<br />Raised sheep and goats<br />Utilized bronze tools<br />System of irrigation to grow wheat and barley<br />People depended on hunting, gathering, herding, farming<br />Pastoral nomads<br />Domesticated animals for food and clothing<br />Aided in long distance trade<br />Passed on new technologies and <br />Provided strength to new civilizations (innovation/technological advancement)<br />Animals traded for grains and vegetables they were unable to grow<br />People who lived in SETTLED communities viewed nomads as barbaric/hostile/uncivilized<br />Indo-Europeans were one of the most important nomadic peoples<br />Indo-European refers to a group of people who used a language derived from a single parent tongue (Latin, Greek, Persian, Sanskrit)<br />
28. The Phoenicians<br />Lived near Palestine (along the Mediterranean)<br />The fall of the Hittites and Egyptians gave the Phoenicians new-found political independence<br />Trade had been the basis of Phoenician prosperity<br />This group produced purple dye, glass, and lumber<br />Great international sea traders<br />Charted new routes in the Mediterranean and Atlantic Ocean<br />Best known for their alphabet<br />Passed on to the Greeks<br />This is the alphabet we use today<br />
29. The “Children of Israel”<br />Israelites<br />Organized into tribes<br />Known for Judaism<br />Later influenced Christianity and Islam<br />History and beliefs written in Jewish Bible (Torah)<br />Old testament<br />Migrated from Mesopotamia to Palestine (aka Canaan by the Hebrews)<br />They grazed flocks and herds<br />Drought caused them to migrate to Egypt<br />They were enslaved up until Moses led them out of Egypt<br />Moses also gave the commandments to the Jewish<br />They eventually returned to Palestine<br />The United Kingdom<br />During King Solomon’s reign, Israelites had control over all of Palestine<br />Jerusalem was made the capital of Israel<br />King Solomon expanded government, army, and encouraged trade<br />He was viewed as a wise ruler who can administer justice<br />
30. The “Children of Israel”<br />The Divided Kingdom<br />Tension between northern and southern tribes led to the creation of 2 separate kingdoms<br />Kingdom of Israel<br />Composed of the ten northern tribes, capital = Samaria<br />In 722 BC, Assyrians overran the Kingdom of Israel<br />The 10 tribes scattered and merged with neighboring peoples, gradually losing their identity<br />Kingdom of Judah<br />Composed of 2 tribes, capital = Jerusalem<br />The Chaldeans defeated Assyria, conquered the Kingdom of Judah, and destroyed Jerusalem in 586 BC<br />Babylonian captivity changed Judaism<br />Became a stateless religion whereby God was the creator of the whole world<br />Eventually, the Persians destroyed the Chaldean kingdom, allowing the people of Judah to return to Jerusalem and rebuild their city and temple<br />Remained under Persian control until the conquest of Alexander the Great<br />
31. Spiritual Dimensions of Israel<br />There is only one God, known as Yaweh<br />Monotheism (belief in only ONE god)<br />God rules the world<br />All people are servants<br />God created nature, but was not nature<br />The moon, rivers, etc. are not gods<br />God is just and good<br />God expects goodness from people<br />Covenant between God and the Hebrew people<br />God will grant protection in exchange for keeping God’s commandments<br />Jewish believe that religious teachers (prophets) were sent by God to serve as His voice to His people<br />Prophets would cry out against social injustice<br />Rich were condemned for causing poor to suffer<br />Jews would not accept the gods of their conquerors or neighbors<br />
32. Rise of New Empires<br />Assyrian Empire (700 BC – 612 BC)<br />Semitic-speaking people<br />Exploited use of iron weapons<br />Established empire by 700 BC<br />Included Mesopotamia, parts of the Iranian Plateau, sections of Asia Minor, Syria, and Palestine<br />Internal strife/conflict led to the empire weakening<br />At its height, king’s power was seen as absolute<br />They were good at conquering others<br />Army was large and well organized<br />Core of infantrymen, joined by cavalry and horse-drawn chariots who shot arrows<br />First large armies equipped with iron<br />They used terror as a form of warfare<br />Set crops on fire, cut down trees, smashed dams, destroyed towns<br />Committed atrocities to captives<br />“Many I took alive, from others I cut off their noses, ears and fingers, I put out the eyes of many soldiers”<br />
33. Persian Empire (559 BC – 330s BC)<br />Nebuchadnezzar II (Chaldean) made Babylonia the leading state in western Asia after the collapse of the Assyrian Empire<br />This civilization fell to the Persians<br />The Persians were organized into groups until one family unified them<br />Indo-European people<br />Persians were primarily nomadic <br />Cyrus created a powerful Persian state<br />Demonstrated much wisdom, compassion for the captured, organization, and a reputation of mercy<br />In 539 BC, he entered Mesopotamia, capturing Babylon<br />He issued an edict permitting the Jews to return to Jerusalem<br />He made use of Assyrian, Babylonian, and Egyptian designs and building methods<br />His son Cambyses successfully invaded Egypt<br />Darius added a province in western India that extended to the Indus River<br />Darius’ moved into Europe, creating the largest empire the world has seen<br />
34. Structure of Persian empire<br />Darius divided the empire into 20 satrapies (provinces)<br />A Governor (satrap) collected taxes, provided justice and security, and recruited soldiers <br />They established roads for easier travel<br />King held power of life and death<br />Soldiers were called the Immortals<br />Struggles over throne weakened the monarchy (rule by king or queen)<br />Artaxerxes II had 115 sons<br />Sons had little power, so they would plot ways as to how to gain the throne<br />Alexander the Great (Greece) soon conquered the Persians<br />Religion<br />Zoroastrianism<br />Monotheistic<br />Ahuramazda was the supreme god who brought all things into being<br />Humans played a role in the struggle between good and evil<br />Good person chooses the right way of Ahuramazda<br />At the last judgment of the end of the world, Ahuramazda would triumph and good and evil will be separated<br />
35. Chapter 3<br />India and China<br />
36. Early civilization in India<br />India experiences the monsoon<br />Seasonal wind pattern <br />Monsoon blows warm, moist air from the south-west during the summer and another blows cold, dry air from the northeast during the winter<br />Major areas include<br />Himalaya<br />Highest mountains in the world, north of India<br />Ganges River<br />South of Himalaya<br />Indus River valley<br />West of Ganges River<br />Deccan<br />Plateau extending from the Ganges Valley to the southern tip of India<br />Dry and hilly<br />Western and eastern coasts have lush plains, usually densely populated<br />
37. First civilization (3000 BC to 1500 BC)<br />Indus River Valley supported a flourishing civilization<br />Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro<br />At its height, Harappa had 35,000 inhabitants, Mohenjo-Daro had about 35,000-40,000 inhabitants<br />Broad north-south streets with smaller east-west streets<br />Buildings constructed of mud bricks baked in ovens<br />Public wells provided supply of water<br />Bathrooms had an advanced drainage system<br />Wastewater flowed out to drains located under streets then to sewage pits beyond city walls<br />Religion<br />Rulers based their power on “Divine Assistance”<br />Religion and political power were closely linked<br />Economy was based on farming (like in Mesopotamia and the Nile region)<br />Indus River flooded every year (like the other rivers) bringing rich soil<br />They carried extensive trade with city-states in Mesopotamia<br />Textiles and food were imported from the Sumerian city-states in exchange for copper, lumber, precious stones, cotton<br />Much trade was carried by ships via the Persian Gulf<br />
38. India<br />Arrival of the Aryans<br />Floods, earthquakes, and changes in climate weakened the Indus-River civilizations<br />Aryans brought the final end<br />Aryans moved across the Hindu Kush mountain range into the planes of northern India<br />Aryans excelled in the art of war, gradually advancing east-ward across the fertile plain of the Ganges<br />They eventually extended their control throughout India<br />A new society based on Aryan culture and institutions was created<br />Aryans gave up pastoral way for farming<br />Irrigation and iron tools allowed the people to turn dense jungles into farmland <br />Aryans developed Sanskrit by 1000 BC<br />This allowed legends and religious rituals and chants to be written down<br />During 1500 and 400 BC, India was a world of warring kingdoms and shifting alliances<br />Rajas (princes) fought other chieftains seizing women, cattle, and treasure<br />
39. Society in ancient india<br />Caste system<br />Rigid social categories determining not only a person’s occupation and economic potential, but his or her position in society (based on skin color)<br />5 castes <br />Brahmans (priestly class, top of social scale)<br />Kshatriyas (warriors)<br />Vaisyas (commoners, usually merchants or farmers)<br />Sudras (made up bulk of Indian population, peasants)<br />Untouchables (given menial, degrading tasks such as collecting trash and handling dead bodies, were not considered human)<br />Family<br />Ideal family was an extended family (grandparents, parents, children)<br />Patriarchal family, oldest male held legal authority over entire family<br />Only males were educated and inherited property<br />Young, high-class men began their education with a guru (teacher) <br />Children were important and expected to care for parents as they aged<br />Women were held in disgrace if they did not perform the ritual of suttee<br />Jumping on the husband’s flaming body when he has died<br />
40. Hinduism<br />Hinduism has origins with Aryan beliefs<br />Early Hindus believed in the existence of a single force in the universe<br />This ultimate God was named Brahman<br />It was the duty of the individual self to seek to know this reality<br />By knowing Brahman, one merges with Brahman after death<br />Reincarnation (soul is reborn in a different form after death) appeared by the 6th century BC<br />Karma, the force generated by a person’s actions that determines how the person will be reborn, is important to reincarnation<br />Dharma (divine law) rules the concept of karma<br />Karma justified the caste system<br />Yoga became important<br />Method of training designed to lead to one’s union with god<br />Vishnu (the preserver) and Shiva (the destroyer) are other important gods<br />Hinduism is still the most prominent religion in India <br />
41. Buddhism<br />Siddhartha Gautama, aka the Buddha or the “Enlightened one” is the founder<br />Siddhartha was the son of a ruling family in the foothills of Himalaya<br />He became aware of the pain of illness/sorry of death and the effects of old age<br />He spent his life seeking the cure for human suffering<br />He gave up his royal clothes, family, and shaved his head in search for this cure<br />He said that achieving wisdom brings one a step closer to achieving nirvana (ultimate reality– the end of the self and a reunion with the Great World Soul)<br />Buddhism is seen as a philosophy rather than a religion<br />Siddhartha preached reincarnation but rejected the caste system<br />There are 4 noble truths and a Middle Path known as the Eightfold Path, consisting of 8 steps<br />
42. Mauryan Dynasty<br />Hinduism and Buddhism developed out of the Aryan culture in India<br />Aryans brought little political unity to India<br />Chandragupta Maurya ruled from 324 to 301 BC in northern India<br />This first Indian Empire was highly centralized<br />Empire was divided into provinces ruled by governors appointed by the king<br />This empire had a large army and secret police<br />This empire flourished under Asoka (grandson of Chandragupta)<br />Considered one of the greatest rulers in Indian history<br />He had trees and shelters placed along the roads for weary travelers<br />The empire began to decline after Asoka’s death<br />After the last Mauryan ruler was killed, India fell to disunity<br />
43. Kushan kingdom and the silk road<br />In 1st century AD, nomadic warriors seized power and established the new Kushan kingdom in Bactria (Afghanistan)<br />This civilization prospered from the trade passing through this region<br />Trade between the Roman empire and China passed between the Silk Road<br />It was called the “Silk Road” since China produced a lot of silk<br />Connected Changan China to Mesopotamia<br />Chinese merchants made large fortunes by trading luxury goods, like silk, spices, teas, and porcelain<br />They were exchanged for woolen and linen clothes, glass, and precious stones<br />The road also reached a port city named Antioch, where goods from the West were traded for goods from the East<br />
44. Kingdom of Guptas<br />Kushnan kingdom ended around 3rd century AD<br />In 320 AD, a new state in the Ganges Valley was created by Chandragupta (no relation to the others)<br />This became a dominant political force throughout northern India<br />Established loose control over central India<br />A new age of Indian civilization was created<br />This kingdom saw prosperity and tolerance of Buddhism <br />Prosperity rose along trade routes<br />Much prosperity came from pilgrims (people who travel to religious places)<br />Gupta rulers managed trade and made a lot of profit<br />In the 5th century AD, they faced invading Huns who reduced their power<br />
45. Indian culture<br />Vedas (religious hymns) were passed down<br />Sanskrit was used to write down vedas<br />Mahabharata is the longest poem in any language<br />Describes war between cousins in Aryan society for control of the kingdom about 1000 BC<br />Architecture<br />3 main types of structures<br />Pillar<br />Sculptures of lions were made, depicting the Buddha’s message<br />Stupa<br />Meant to house a relic of the Buddha, like a lock of hair<br />These usually became places for devotion<br />Rock chamber<br />Carved out of rock cliffs<br />Provide a series of rooms to house monks and serve as a hall for religious ceremonies<br />Science<br />Great astronomers, charting movement of the heavenly bodies<br />Recognized that the earth is spherical and rotates on an axis<br />Introduced the concept of zero, and Aryabhata (scientist) used algebra<br />
46. Chinese civilizations<br />Huang He River (Yellow river) carries rich yellow silt all the way from Mongolia to the Pacific<br />Chang Jiang (Yangtze river) empties into the yellow sea<br />Area between these two rivers was very suitable for civilization<br />Chinese natural barriers (mountains, deserts) isolated the Chinese people from others<br />
47. Shang Dynasty<br />Farming society ruled by an aristocracy<br />Upper class whose wealth is based on land and whose power is passed on from one generation to another<br />Huge city walls, royal palaces, large royal tombs<br />Politics and Social Structures<br />Ruled by king<br />Realm divided into territories governed by aristocratic warlords<br />Early Chinese kings were buried with the corpses of their servants<br />Rulers would communicated with the gods using oracle bones<br />Great majority of people were farming peasants<br />There was a small number of merchants, artisans, and slaves<br />Religion and Culture under Shang<br />Strong belief in life after death<br />Spirits of family ancestors could bring good or evil fortune to living members, thus, spirits must be treated well<br />Mastery of bronze casting<br />
48. Zhou dynasty<br />Lasted almost 900 years, longest lasting Chinese Dynasty<br />Head of government was king<br />King was the connection between heaven and earth<br />Kingdom was divided into territories governed by appointees <br />Mandate of Heaven<br />It was believed that heaven kept order in the universe through the Zhou king<br />King is responsible for ruling people with goodness and efficiency<br />It was the king’s obligation to protect the people<br />This, however, implies that the king can be overthrown if he is evil<br />The king is only a representative of Heaven, but not divine himself<br />All new dynasties experienced a cycle<br />They would gain power, rule successfully for many years, then decline<br />The Fall of the Zhou Dynasty<br />Zhou began to decline intellectually and morally<br />This kingdom was divided into small territories<br />In 403 BC, a civil war broke out<br />Foot soldiers and cavalry came into appearance<br />Cavalry members were armed with powerful crossbow<br />The Qin Dynasty soon took control and established its dynasty in 221 BC<br />
49. China<br />Life during the Zhou Dynasty<br />Peasants worked on land owned by lords<br />Peasants also had land of their own, which they used for their own use<br />Artisans and merchants lived in walled towns under the direct control of the local lord<br />Economic and Technological Growth<br />Large scale water projects, such as irrigation, were set in motion to control the flow of rivers and spread of water<br />Changes in farming methods increased food production<br />Far reaching trade networks<br />Development of iron led to iron plowshares<br />Family in Ancient China<br />Family served as the basic economic and social unit<br />They practiced Filial Piety, duty of a members of the family to subordinate their needs and desires to those of the male head of the family<br />Children were essential, working in fields during early years<br />Males were eventually in charge of the well-being of their parents and physical labor<br />Male supremacy was a key element<br />Provided food for family<br />Wives of rulers played a part in court affairs<br />
50. ChiNa<br />Written language<br />Chinese developed a simple script <br />Composed of pictographs/picture symbols<br />Chinese Philosophies<br />3 major schools of thought<br />Confucianism<br />It is the duty of human beings to work hard to improve life on Earth<br />Daoism<br />True way to follow the will of Heaven is not action, but inaction<br />Legalism<br />Human beings are evil by nature<br />Harsh laws and stiff punishments can correct this evil<br />Chinese philosophers were concerned about the immediate world in which people lived and how to create a stable order in that world<br />
51. Qin Dynasty<br />Legalism was adopted as the official ideology<br />The government was divided into 3 parts<br />Civil division, military division, censorate (inspectors who checked on government officials to make sure they’re doing their jobs)<br />Two levels of administration: provinces and counties<br />Officials were appointed and dismissed by the emperor<br />Qin Shihuangdi unified the Chinese world<br />Created a single monetary system, ordered the building of a system of roads<br />The Qin built the Great wall to defend China from the Xiongnu<br />This group was separated into tribes but mastered the art of fighting on horseback<br />The first Qin emperor angered many Chinese <br />After his death, there was a civil war<br />
52. Han Dynasty<br />Emerged in 202 BC<br />Founder was Liu Bang, a man of peasant origin<br />Harsh policies from the Qin dynasty were discarded<br />Confucianism was adopted as the state’s philosophy<br />Government officials were chosen out of merit, rather than birth (as practiced by the Qin Dynasty)<br />School was created to teach Confucianism, Chinese history, and law<br />Population rapidly increased<br />Han emperors expanded the Empire, adding the southern region<br />Society<br />Great prosperity, but taxes and demands on labor caused issues<br />These taxes and duties led poor peasants to sell their land and become tenant farmers<br />Technology<br />Iron casting technology led to the invention of steel<br />Paper was developed<br />Rudder and fore-aft rigging, ships could sail using wind <br />Power of central government began declining<br />Wars and peasant uprisings brought the collapse of the dynasty<br />Qin and Han dynasty<br />Known for cultural achievements, such as the philosophical schools<br />Terra cotta army<br />Recreation of Qin’s imperial guard<br />