Sunday, July 19, 2015

World History Chapter 7 “The Hebrews and Judaism” 2000 BC – AD 70

World History
Chapter 7

“The Hebrews and Judaism”

2000 BC – AD 70

Chapter Background Video 
“Judaism” - 27 Minutes

Section 1 “The Early Hebrews”

Abraham and Moses Lead the Hebrews
Between 2000 and 1500 BC the Hebrews appeared in Southwest Asia.  Their religion was known as Judaism  Accounts of early Hebrew history and laws became the Hebrew bible.

The Bible says that a man named Abraham was told by God to move his family to Canaan.  His descendants (the Hebrews) lived in Canaan but eventually moved to Egypt where they were enslaved.  In the 1200’s BC God told a man named Moses to lead the Hebrews out of Egypt and back towards Canaan.  This journey is known as the Exodus.   

(Possible) Routes of Abraham and Moses

The Hebrews wondered for 40 years in the desert.  During this time they reached Mount Sinai where God gave Moses two stone tablets inscribed with the Ten Commandments. (A code of moral laws.

Moses and the Ten Commandments

After their return to Canaan the Hebrews became known as the Israelites

Kings Unite the Israelites
King Saul - fought off the Philistines
King David – United all of Israel’s tribes, defeated the Philistines, captured Jerusalem.
King Solomon – (965 BC) Expanded the kingdom, increased trade and wealth, built the great temple to God in Jerusalem.

King Solomon

Invaders Conquer 
and Rule

After the death ofKing David Israel split into two kingdoms, Israeland Judah.  The people of Judah became known asJews.  

In 722 BC the Assyrians conquered Israel.  In 586 BC the Chaldeans captured Jerusalem and took the Jews to their capital, Babylon and enslaved them. (“The Babylonian Captivity”)  When the Persians conquered the Chaldeans the Jews scattered around the Persian Empire.  This scattering of Jews outside of Canaan is known as the Diaspora.

In 63 BC the Jews in Jerusalem were conquered by the Romans.

Carefully study the Section 1 Assessment on page 207 prior to the quiz.

Section 2 “Jewish Beliefs and Texts”

Jewish Beliefs Anchor Their Society

Belief in one God (Yahweh) – Monotheismset the Jews apart from other peoples of the time.

Belief in Education and study – Teaching the basics of Judaism to children has always been important in Jewish society.

Belief in Justice and Righteousness – Behave properly even if others do not.

Belief in Obedience and Law – Jews follow the Mosaic Laws (The Laws of Moses). These include the Ten Commandments and many other laws that rule how Jews live their lives.

Many Jews follow a strict set of life rules and laws
No working on holidays
No working on the Sabbath (Saturday)
Eating only Kosher food

Worship Items of Judaism

Three Sects within Judaism
Orthodox – Strict followers of Mosaic Law
Conservative – Not quite as strict as Orthodox.
Reformed – Accept a more liberal interpretation of the Torah

Texts List Jewish Beliefs

Torah – Written by the ancient Hebrews, the Torah is divided into five books and includes Jewish laws and history to the death of Moses. All synagogues (Jewish house of worship) have at least one Torah. 
Torah is the most sacred book of Judaism.

Torah Scroll

The Hebrew Bible (Tanach) 
Three parts: 
Torah divided into five books
Eight books describing the messages of the Hebrew prophets 
Eleven books of additional poetry, songs, stories, lessons and history 

Talmud – Produced between AD 200 and 600, the Talmud is a set of commentaries, stories and folklore.  Many Jews consider them second only to the Hebrew Bible in their significance to Judaism.

In 1947 the Dead Sea Scrolls were discovered in a cave.  Written between 100 BC and AD 50, the scrolls reveal the history of many Jews during this period.

Dead Sea Scroll 

Judaism and Later Cultures
Jewish ideas have influenced Western culture. Christianity is based on the teachings of Jesus.  Jesus was Jewish and many of his teachings reflect Jewish ideas.  

Both Judaism and Christianity follow the Ten Commandments.

The early adopters of Islam believed that they (like the Jews) were descendants of Abraham.

The practice of not working on the Sabbath has been adopted by believers in many cultures.

Carefully study the Section 2 Assessment on page 213 prior to the quiz.
(Fill in the Blank)

Section 3 “Judaism over the Centuries”

Revolt, Defeat and Migration
In AD 66, led by the Zealots, the Jews of Jerusalem revolted against their Roman rulers.   The fighting lasted for four years and ruined Jerusalem.  

In AD 70 the Romans burned the Second Temple and most Jews lost their will to fight and surrendered.  However, a group of about 1,000 Zealots held out for two years in the mountain fortress of Masada.  In the end they committed suicide rather than be captured. 

After this defeat the Romans governed Jerusalem and enslaved the Jews.  A second revolt occurred in the AD 130’s.  It was also crushed by the Romans.  After this, many Jews migrated around the Mediterranean region.

1st Century Jewish Migration
“The Diaspora” 

Migration and Discrimination
With Jews separated by migration, localsynagogues became important and Jewish teachers called rabbis took on a greater role in guiding Jews in their religious life.

Synagogue of Budapest, Hungary

As a result of discrimination some Jews had to migrate further and the Jewish populations Asia and Russia, and much later, the United States, increased.

Major Religions of the World

U.S. Jewish Population Map

Two Cultural Traditions
Ashkenazim – The descendants of Jews who settled in Eastern Europe. Developed theYiddish language.  Settled communities separate from others and maintained strong traditions.

Sephardim – The descendants of Jews who settled in Iberia (Spain and Portugal).  Developed the Ladino language.  Mixed with local non-Jewish communities.

Jewish Traditions and Holy Days

High Holy Days
Rosh Hashanah – The Jewish New Year (September)
Yom Kippur – Jews fast (do not eat) and ask God to forgive their sins. Jews think back on Jewish history and appreciate their pasts back to the days of Abraham and David.

Carefully study the Section 3 Assessment on page 219 prior to the quiz.
(True/False - Correct the False) 

Chapter 7 Review on pages 221-223 prior to the chapter test.

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